If you know you are pregnant, or think you might be, call your doctor or other healthcare provider to schedule a visit. Whether or not this is your first pregnancy, early care will help keep you and your baby healthy. If you are stressed or scared about your pregnancy, your healthcare provider can also provide information and support. Care is best provided in a continuous manner with the same healthcare provider or patient-centered medical home, where many healthcare providers work as a team. If you do not have a primary healthcare provider, there are a number of places you can get no or low-cost healthcare services, even if you are uninsured.
Bothwell TH July That can be from a multivitamin or folic acid supplement in addition to the folic acid found in food. Pregnant women who use drugs may be placing their unborn babies at pregannt for premature birth, poor growth, birth defects, and behavior and learning problems. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. Discovery Communications, LLC. Archived from the original on All regarding pregnant January
How early can signs of pregnancy. Want to know if you're really pregnant?
Summary Pregnant women turn to pgegnant and herbal supplements for various reasons. But if traveling within the last four weeks of pregnancy, expecting multiple births, or having a complicated pregnancy, medical clearance is required. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the All regarding pregnant. However, pregnant women with iron deficiency or anemia Alll higher doses of iron, managed by their doctor. However, some experts suggest that vitamin D needs during pregnancy are much All regarding pregnant Follow your employer's reporting procedures if there are any. Learn more about what the causes may be, what types of…. Pregnancy discrimination involves treating a woman an applicant or employee unfavorably because of pregnancy, childbirth, or a medical condition related to pregnancy or childbirth. This is advised to fill in nutritional gaps and prevent birth defects like spina bifida 9. Folate is a B vitamin that plays an integral role in DNA synthesis, red blood cell production and fetal growth and Amateur college pics
Pregnancy , also known as gestation , is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
- Federal employees have 45 days to contact an EEO Counselor.
- The internet, magazines and advertisements flood women with advice on how to stay healthy during pregnancy.
- There is no known safe amount of alcohol use during pregnancy or while trying to get pregnant.
- By Benet Wilson.
- If you are pregnant, have been pregnant, or may become pregnant, and if your employer has 15 or more employees, you are protected against pregnancy-based discrimination and harassment at work under federal law.
Pregnancy , also known as gestation , is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. Pregnancy is divided into three trimesters. Prenatal care improves pregnancy outcomes. Associated terms for pregnancy are gravid and parous. Gravidus and gravid come from the Latin word meaning "heavy" and a pregnant female is sometimes referred to as a gravida. Similarly, the term parity is used for the number of times that a female carries a pregnancy to a viable stage.
A woman who has never been pregnant is referred to as a nulligravida. A woman who is or has been only pregnant for the first time is referred to as a primigravida ,  and a woman in subsequent pregnancies as a multigravida or as multiparous.
In the case of a multiple birth the gravida number and parity value are increased by one only. Women who have never carried a pregnancy achieving more than 20 weeks of gestation age are referred to as nulliparous. A pregnancy is considered term at 37 weeks of gestation. It is preterm if less than 37 weeks and postterm at or beyond 42 weeks of gestation. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have recommended further division with early term 37 weeks up to 39 weeks, full term 39 weeks up to 41 weeks, and late term 41 weeks up to 42 weeks.
Preterm and postterm are defined above, whereas premature and postmature have historical meaning and relate more to the infant's size and state of development rather than to the stage of pregnancy.
The usual symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy do not significantly interfere with activities of daily living or pose a health-threat to the mother or baby. However, pregnancy complications can cause other more severe symptoms, such as those associated with anemia. The chronology of pregnancy is, unless otherwise specified, generally given as gestational age , where the starting point is the beginning of the woman's last menstrual period LMP , or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.
Sometimes, timing may also use the fertilization age which is the age of the embryo. According to American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists , the main methods to calculate gestational age are: . Naegele's rule is a standard way of calculating the due date for a pregnancy when assuming a gestational age of days at childbirth.
The rule estimates the expected date of delivery EDD by adding a year, subtracting three months, and adding seven days to the origin of gestational age. Alternatively there are mobile apps , which essentially always give consistent estimations compared to each other and correct for leap year , while pregnancy wheels made of paper can differ from each other by 7 days and generally do not correct for leap year.
Furthermore, actual childbirth has only a certain probability of occurring within the limits of the estimated due date. A study of singleton live births came to the result that childbirth has a standard deviation of 14 days when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasound , and 16 days when estimated directly by last menstrual period. Through an interplay of hormones that includes follicle stimulating hormone that stimulates folliculogenesis and oogenesis creates a mature egg cell , the female gamete.
Fertilization is the event where the egg cell fuses with the male gamete, spermatozoon. After the point of fertilization, the fused product of the female and male gamete is referred to as a zygote or fertilized egg.
The fusion of female and male gametes usually occurs following the act of sexual intercourse. Pregnancy rates for sexual intercourse are highest during the menstrual cycle time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days after ovulation. Fertilization conception is sometimes used as the initiation of pregnancy, with the derived age being termed fertilization age. Fertilization usually occurs about two weeks before the next expected menstrual period.
A third point in time is also considered by some people to be the true beginning of a pregnancy: This is time of implantation, when the future fetus attaches to the lining of the uterus. This is about a week to ten days after fertilization.
The sperm and the egg cell, which has been released from one of the female's two ovaries , unite in one of the two fallopian tubes.
The fertilized egg, known as a zygote , then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up to a week to complete. Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the female and male cells unite. Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst.
The blastocyst arrives at the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall, a process known as implantation. The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten weeks of gestation. During this time, cells begin to differentiate into the various body systems. The basic outlines of the organ, body, and nervous systems are established. By the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings of features such as fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible.
Also during this time, there is development of structures important to the support of the embryo, including the placenta and umbilical cord. The placenta connects the developing embryo to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. The umbilical cord is the connecting cord from the embryo or fetus to the placenta. After about ten weeks of gestational age, the embryo becomes known as a fetus. At the beginning of the fetal stage, the risk of miscarriage decreases sharply.
Sex organs begin to appear during the third month of gestation. The fetus continues to grow in both weight and length, although the majority of the physical growth occurs in the last weeks of pregnancy. Electrical brain activity is first detected between the fifth and sixth week of gestation. It is considered primitive neural activity rather than the beginning of conscious thought.
Synapses begin forming at 17 weeks, and begin to multiply quickly at week 28 until 3 to 4 months after birth. During pregnancy, a woman undergoes many physiological changes, which are entirely normal, including behavioral , cardiovascular , hematologic , metabolic , renal , and respiratory changes.
Increases in blood sugar , breathing , and cardiac output are all required. Levels of progesterone and estrogens rise continually throughout pregnancy, suppressing the hypothalamic axis and therefore also the menstrual cycle.
A full-term pregnancy at an early age reduces the risk of breast , ovarian and endometrial cancer and the risk declines further with each additional full-term pregnancy. The fetus is genetically different from its mother, and can be viewed as an unusually successful allograft. Pregnancy is typically broken into three groups of three months, each known as a trimester. Many symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy like nausea and tender breasts appear in the first trimester.
Weeks 13 to 28 of the pregnancy are called the second trimester. Most women feel more energized in this period, and begin to put on weight as the symptoms of morning sickness subside and eventually fade away.
The uterus, the muscular organ that holds the developing fetus, can expand up to 20 times its normal size during pregnancy. Although the fetus begins to move during the first trimester, it is not until the second trimester that movement, known as quickening , can be felt. This typically happens in the fourth month, more specifically in the 20th to 21st week, or by the 19th week if the woman has been pregnant before.
It is common for some women not to feel the fetus move until much later. During the second trimester, most women begin to wear maternity clothes. Final weight gain takes place, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy. The woman's abdomen will transform in shape as it drops due to the fetus turning in a downward position ready for birth. During the second trimester, the woman's abdomen would have been upright, whereas in the third trimester it will drop down low.
The fetus moves regularly, and is felt by the woman. Fetal movement can become strong and be disruptive to the woman. The woman's navel will sometimes become convex, "popping" out, due to the expanding abdomen. Head engagement , where the fetal head descends into cephalic presentation , relieves pressure on the upper abdomen with renewed ease in breathing. It also severely reduces bladder capacity, and increases pressure on the pelvic floor and the rectum.
It is also during the third trimester that maternal activity and sleep positions may affect fetal development due to restricted blood flow. For instance, the enlarged uterus may impede blood flow by compressing the vena cava when lying flat, which is relieved by lying on the left side.
Childbirth, referred to as labor and delivery in the medical field, is the process whereby an infant is born. A woman is considered to be in labour when she begins experiencing regular uterine contractions, accompanied by changes of her cervix — primarily effacement and dilation. While childbirth is widely experienced as painful, some women do report painless labours, while others find that concentrating on the birth helps to quicken labour and lessen the sensations.
Most births are successful vaginal births, but sometimes complications arise and a woman may undergo a cesarean section. During the time immediately after birth, both the mother and the baby are hormonally cued to bond, the mother through the release of oxytocin , a hormone also released during breastfeeding. Studies show that skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn immediately after birth is beneficial for both the mother and baby.
A review done by the World Health Organization found that skin-to-skin contact between mothers and babies after birth reduces crying, improves mother—infant interaction, and helps mothers to breastfeed successfully. They recommend that neonates be allowed to bond with the mother during their first two hours after birth, the period that they tend to be more alert than in the following hours of early life. In the ideal childbirth labor begins on its own when a woman is "at term". Sometimes if a woman's water breaks or she has contractions before 39 weeks, birth is unavoidable.
Babies born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation have better outcomes than babies born either before or after this range. Events after 42 weeks are considered postterm. The postnatal period, also referred to as the puerperium , begins immediately after delivery and extends for about six weeks. The beginning of pregnancy may be detected either based on symptoms by the woman herself, or by using pregnancy tests.
However, an important condition with serious health implications that is quite common is the denial of pregnancy by the pregnant woman.
About one in denials will last until around the 20th week of pregnancy. The proportion of cases of denial, persisting until delivery is about 1 in This condition is known as a false pregnancy. Most pregnant women experience a number of symptoms,  which can signify pregnancy. A number of early medical signs are associated with pregnancy. Pregnancy detection can be accomplished using one or more various pregnancy tests ,  which detect hormones generated by the newly formed placenta , serving as biomarkers of pregnancy.
Obstetric ultrasonography can detect fetal abnormalities , detect multiple pregnancies , and improve gestational dating at 24 weeks. Prenatal medical care is the medical and nursing care recommended for women during pregnancy, time intervals and exact goals of each visit differ by country.
Continue to 9 of 25 below. But do they really work? Supplements to Avoid During Pregnancy. For multiple pregnancies, a certificate is required between the 29th and 32nd week; after that, women will not be allowed to travel. If you are pregnant, have been pregnant, or may become pregnant, and if your employer has 15 or more employees, you are protected against pregnancy-based discrimination and harassment at work under federal law. You don't need to have a particular accommodation in mind before you ask for one, though you can ask for something specific.
All regarding pregnant. Pregnancy Discrimination & Temporary Disability
But if traveling within the last four weeks of pregnancy, expecting multiple births, or having a complicated pregnancy, medical clearance is required. Staff onboard the flight will help stow carry-on luggage. Seats can be pre-assigned and women cannot sit in an exit row. The Japanese carrier requires women within 15 to 28 days of their due date to fill out and carry a medical information form. Women within 14 days of their due date are required to have a medical form and travel with a doctor.
The form must indicate there are no complications of pregnancy, that the passenger has no health problems preventing them from flying and the due date. It must be completed by a doctor and submitted no more than seven days prior to departure.
The Fort Worth-based carrier has different rules for international and domestic flights. Those who need travel within this time frame will need approval from a physician and help from a special assistance coordinator. The pregnant woman's physician will be required to fill out a passenger medical form before a flight.
A special assistance coordinator will send the form directly to your physician. Clearance from a special assistance coordinator is required for international travel or travel over water. And seven days before or after delivery also requires a passenger medical form to be completed by your physician.
The U. After 28 weeks, expecting mothers must carry a confirmation from a doctor or midwife, such as a letter or certificate, in addition to your pregnancy record. It should be written within seven days prior to travel and confirm your approximate due date, that you're fit to travel and that there are no complications with your pregnancy. The Atlanta-based carrier does not impose restrictions on flying for pregnant women, so a medical certificate is not required to travel.
But the airline will not waive ticket change fees and penalties for pregnancy. The airline recommends that those flying after their eight month should check with their doctor to be sure travel is not restricted. The UK-based No restrictions for pregnant passengers traveling up to the 27th week of pregnancy.
The certificate must be issued by a doctor or midwife, and must be dated within five days of the outbound travel date. No travel is permitted beyond the 36th week of pregnancy. Pregnant women can travel up to their 28th week without a medical certificate.
After that, they are required to have a certificate or letter signed by a qualified doctor or midwife that states whether the pregnancy is single or multiple, is progressing without complications, includes an estimated due date, that you are in good health and there's no known reason to prevent you from flying. This Abu Dhabi-based carrier allows women with single or multiple children to travel during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy without a medical certificate. For single pregnancies between 29 and 36 weeks, a medical certificate is required.
After 37 weeks, pregnant women will not be allowed to travel. For multiple pregnancies, a certificate is required between the 29th and 32nd week; after that, women will not be allowed to travel. The original medical certificate shall be accepted for the whole journey originating, return and stopover flights , provided the above validity criteria is met for each sector.
And it is valid for three weeks from the date of issue. The New York-based carrier does not allow pregnant customers expecting to deliver within seven days to travel unless they provide a doctor's certificate dated no more than 72 hours prior to departure stating that the woman is physically fit for air travel to and from the destinations requested on the date of the flight and that the estimated date of delivery is after the date of the last flight. The Dutch flag carrier recommends pregnant mothers not fly after the 36th week, along with the first week following delivery.
If you have had complications, you always need to have permission to fly from your physician. Expectant mothers with complication-free pregnancies can fly on the German flag carrier until the end of the 36th week of pregnancy or up to four weeks before their expected due date without a medical certificate from a gynecologist. But the airline recommends that pregnant women beyond the 28th week have a current letter from a gynecologist that includes confirmation that the pregnancy is progressing without complications and the expected due date.
Because of the increased risk of thrombosis during pregnancy, the airline does recommend that expectant mothers wear compression stockings while flying. The Malaysian flag carrier requires medical clearance for expectant mothers approaching 35 weeks for international travel or 36 weeks for domestic travel. If medical clearance is required, the MEDIF application form should be completed by a doctor and submitted to the airline through its ticketing offices or travel agents at least five working days before traveling.
An expectant mother who is in normal health and with no pregnancy complications will be allowed to fly without medical clearance after filling out an EMIS form. Pregnant women may be accepted for travel if they are not beyond 35 weeks if they fill out a part one of the EMIS form. And if the expectant mother is below 21 years of age, the consent in writing of the husband, parent or guardian must be secured.
For expectant mothers beyond 32 weeks of pregnancy, EMIS Part 3 must be accomplished by the Flight Surgeon or Company Physician, who shall issue the clearance for travel. On Australia's flag carrier for flights longer than four hours, women can fly up to the end of the 36th week for single pregnancies and the end of the 32nd week for multiple pregnancies.
After the 28th week, women are required to have a certificate or letter from a registered medical practitioner or registered midwife confirming the delivery date, whether it's a single or multiple pregnancy and that the pregnancy is routine.
No doctor's note is required for women traveling through their 28th week of pregnancy. Expectant mothers can fly between week 29 and week 32 with a doctor's note and a pregnancy with no complications. You may be able to get an accommodation under the PDA if your employer gives accommodations to employees who have limitations that are similar to yours, but were not caused by pregnancy.
You may be able to get an accommodation under the ADA if you have a pregnancy-related medical condition such as cervical insufficiency, anemia, sciatica, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, or depression, that meets the ADA definition of "disability.
A condition does not have to be permanent or severe, or result in a high degree of functional limitation, to be "substantially limiting. If your symptoms come and go, what matters is how limiting they would be when present. You don't need to have a particular accommodation in mind before you ask for one, though you can ask for something specific.
However, you should know that the ADA doesn't require your employer to make changes that involve significant difficulty or expense. Also, if more than one accommodation would work, the employer can choose which one to give you. First, if you are being told by a health care provider that you can't do your job safely and, for example, need light duty or can't do your job because of a limitation or restriction, you may want to make sure that it's really true.
Your health care provider may not have considered the possibility that an accommodation would allow you to do your regular job safely. See Question 3 above.
Things like reduced workloads and temporary reassignments often come with reduced pay, but your employer is not allowed to reduce your pay because you need an accommodation to do your regular job.
If you really can't do your regular job safely, even with an accommodation, you might be able to get altered job duties under the PDA. Depending on how your employer treats non-pregnant employees with similar limitations, the PDA might require your employer to reduce your workload, remove an essential function of your job, or temporarily assign you to a different position if the employer does those things for non-pregnant employees with limitations similar to yours. If you can't work at all and you have no paid leave, you still may be entitled to unpaid leave as an accommodation.
More information about this law can be found at www. Some states and localities have passed laws that provide additional protections. Start by telling a supervisor, HR manager, or other appropriate person that you need a change at work due to pregnancy.
You should inform your employer if the source of your problem at work is a pregnancy-related medical condition, because you might be able to get an accommodation under the ADA.
An employer cannot legally fire you, or refuse to hire or promote you, because you asked for an accommodation, or because you need one. The employer also cannot charge you for the costs of an accommodation. Because employers do not have to excuse poor job performance, even if it was caused by a pregnancy-related medical condition, it may be better to ask for an accommodation before any problems occur or become worse. Under the ADA, your employer may ask you to submit a letter from your health care provider documenting that you have a pregnancy-related medical condition, and that you need an accommodation because of it.
Your health care provider might also be asked whether particular accommodations would meet your needs.
Stages of pregnancy | icc-greaterchicago.com
If you know you are pregnant, or think you might be, call your doctor or other healthcare provider to schedule a visit. Whether or not this is your first pregnancy, early care will help keep you and your baby healthy. If you are stressed or scared about your pregnancy, your healthcare provider can also provide information and support. Care is best provided in a continuous manner with the same healthcare provider or patient-centered medical home, where many healthcare providers work as a team.
If you do not have a primary healthcare provider, there are a number of places you can get no or low-cost healthcare services, even if you are uninsured. Prenatal care is the healthcare you get while you are pregnant.
It helps keep you and your baby healthy. Go to all the appointments your healthcare provider schedules for you while you are pregnant—they are all important. Family visitors offer free support to moms-to-be, families, and babies. Join other parents like you who want to give their babies the best possible start. Your baby needs at least 39 weeks to grow and develop before she is born. If your pregnancy is healthy, wait for labor to begin on its own.
A healthy baby is worth the wait. Prenatal classes can help you prepare for labor, birth, and early parenthood. Check with your local birthing hospital to learn about classes and to sign up. Many health insurance companies offer special programs for pregnant women, such as free breastfeeding or prenatal classes.
Check with your health insurance company for more information. The Women, Infants, and Children WIC Program provides many services for eligible families, including breastfeeding support, medical and social service referrals, and checks for healthy foods. The Department of Human Services DHS Rhode Island Works Program offers eligible pregnant women temporary cash assistance, health coverage, child care assistance, and help finding job training or a job.
To learn more or to apply, contact your local DHS office. Women Planning a Pregnancy Pregnant Women. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Births to Teens. Pregnancy Risk Assessment. Information for Pregnant Women If you are pregnant, there are steps you can take to have a healthy pregnancy and healthy baby. What You Should Do Some of the best things you can do to have a healthy pregnancy and baby are to: Talk with a healthcare provider as early as possible. Get regular prenatal care.
Sign up for family visiting and get free support and services Talk with a healthcare provider If you know you are pregnant, or think you might be, call your doctor or other healthcare provider to schedule a visit. Get free support and services Family visitors offer free support to moms-to-be, families, and babies. Learn about resources offered by your health insurance company Many health insurance companies offer special programs for pregnant women, such as free breastfeeding or prenatal classes.
Apply for WIC benefits The Women, Infants, and Children WIC Program provides many services for eligible families, including breastfeeding support, medical and social service referrals, and checks for healthy foods.
Get the flu and Tdap vaccines. These vaccines will protect you and your baby before and after birth. These tests check for potential problems for you and your baby. If found, many of these can be treated during pregnancy. Take care of yourself.
Eat smart , exercise safely, get plenty of sleep, and find ways to control stress. Avoid things that could harm you or your baby Avoid alcohol and illegal drugs, and take prescription medicines as directed. There is no known safe amount of alcohol to drink while you are pregnant. Local help is available for drug and alcohol use. Free help is available to quit for good. Protect your baby from lead poisoning. Stay away from cat and rodent waste.
If you own a cat, ask your healthcare provider about toxoplasmosis. You can lower your risk of getting this infection by having a non-pregnant person change the litter box. Get ready for your baby's arrival Learn about the benefits of breastfeeding, and find local support services. Talk with your partner and your healthcare provider about birth control options before your baby is born. If you plan to have more children, discuss your family planning goals. Care is best provided in a continuous manner with the same patient-centered medical home.
In these settings, many healthcare providers work as a team to improve the health of families. You may also want to ask friends, neighbors, and relatives for a suggestion or call for a prenatal interview. You will be seeing this person a lot in the first year for check ups, so make sure the location and their style works for you. Find local health information for new parents.
Learn how to properly install a child safety seat in your car. Safe Kids Rhode Island has a schedule of car seat check events across the state. Know how to protect your baby from serious falls at home. Quitting is hard, but not impossible.
Store those you use safely. Put the regional Poison Control Number on your fridge. You can also order poison control brochures, stickers, and magnets for free online.
What We Do Offer free support to pregnant women and families with young children through our family visiting programs.