Ptosis or sagging of the female breast is a natural consequence of aging. The rate at which a woman's breasts drop and the degree of ptosis depends on many factors. The key factors influencing breast ptosis over a woman's lifetime are cigarette smoking, her number of pregnancies , gravity , higher body mass index , larger bra cup size, and significant weight change. Many women and medical professionals mistakenly believe that breastfeeding increases sagging. It is also commonly believed that the breast itself offers insufficient support and that wearing a bra prevents sagging, which has not been found to be true.
The nipple of the breast may also tend to point downward. Sports Medicine. Lay summary — LiveScience November 2, Big breasted tribe Some experts believe Cooper's ligaments, which are connective tissue with the breast, provide some support within breasts,  but there's no agreement on whether bfeasted provide support or simply divide breast tissue into compartments. The nipple-areola complex tends to move lower on the breast relative to the inframammary crease.
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Far from offensive, the query was appropriate and astute.
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Far from offensive, the query was appropriate and astute. My classmates and I nodded approval, and the professor added it to a growing list on the board. We were brainstorming features that distinguish our species, Homo sapiens , from other primates. In other primate species, only pregnant or lactating females have bosoms. The animals stay flat-chested for the rest of their lives. In humans, pubescent girls accumulate fat around their milk glands, which stays for life and seems to hold sex appeal in every culture.
Over the years, researchers have proposed a number of explanations for human breasts. Others suggested permanent breasts evolved as an energy reserve , lumps of fat to be tapped when food is scarce. Whereas in cold climates, animals maintain fat throughout their bodies for energy storage and insulation, desert-dwelling camels sequester fat in their humps to avoid overheating.
Since our ancestors evolved in equatorial Africa, perhaps females stored fat similarly, in their breasts, butts and hips. Whether or not breasts first served as energy banks or handle bars for mothers and infants, they eventually caught the attention of males. Reproduce with me! Furthermore, heterosexual men should be more attracted to breasts with those qualities. In Western populations, some studies have shown that most men prefer women with narrow waists and large breasts here , here.
The researchers measured two female sex hormones — progesterone and a form of estrogen E2 — from spit samples, collected from healthy Polish women every morning for the duration of one menstrual cycle, or roughly one month. Not considering waists, breast size alone related only to E2 levels. Because estrogen plays a crucial role in girls developing their womanly figures, this may suggest that breasts are just a side effect of gaining healthy voluptuous fat overall. But the study also found that women with large breasts and narrow waists had higher values for both hormones — and the combo of these hormones predicts pregnancy success.
And the picture gets complicated when additional populations are considered. A more recent study did not find any relationship between breasts, hips and hormones. However, this experiment only measured 33 California women.
Usually, participants are asked to rate, in order of attractiveness, a few images of the same woman, digitally modified to have different-looking breasts. The ladies may be bikini clad, topless or just represented by a cartoon silhouette. Depending on the study group, researchers have found men more attracted to large , medium , or small breasts.
And some experiments focused on other qualities than size, such as how perky or symmetrical breasts are. Suffice to say, if there are underlying, biologically evolved preferences for certain breast qualities, cultural and individual factors can override them. More research is certainly needed.
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Scientists Still Stumped By The Evolution of Human Breasts - The Crux
Ptosis or sagging of the female breast is a natural consequence of aging. The rate at which a woman's breasts drop and the degree of ptosis depends on many factors.
The key factors influencing breast ptosis over a woman's lifetime are cigarette smoking, her number of pregnancies , gravity , higher body mass index , larger bra cup size, and significant weight change. Many women and medical professionals mistakenly believe that breastfeeding increases sagging. It is also commonly believed that the breast itself offers insufficient support and that wearing a bra prevents sagging, which has not been found to be true.
Plastic surgeons categorize the degree of ptosis by evaluating the position of the nipple relative to the infra-mammary fold , the point at which the underside of the breasts attach to the chest wall. In the most advanced stage, the nipples are below the fold and point toward the ground. A woman's breasts change in size, volume, and position on her chest throughout her life.
In young women with large breasts, sagging may occur early in life due to the effects of gravity. It may be primarily caused by the volume and weight of the breasts which are disproportionate to her body size. During pregnancy, the ovaries and the placenta produce estrogen and progesterone. These hormones stimulate the 15 to 20 lobes of the milk-secreting glands in the breasts to develop.
Women who experience multiple pregnancies repeatedly stretch the skin envelope during engorgement while lactating. As a woman's breasts change in size during repeated pregnancies, the size of her breasts change as her mammary glands are engorged with milk and as she gains and loses weight with each pregnancy. A review found that weight gain during pregnancy and breastfeeding were not significant risk factors for ptosis.
In middle-aged women, breast ptosis is caused by a combination of factors. If a woman has been pregnant, postpartum hormonal changes will cause her depleted milk glands to atrophy.
Breast tissue and suspensory ligaments may also be stretched if the woman is overweight or loses and gains weight.
When these factors are at play, the breast prolapses , or falls forward. When a woman with sagging breasts stands, the underside or inferior skin of the breast folds over the infra-mammary fold and lies against the chest wall.
The nipple-areola complex tends to move lower on the breast relative to the inframammary crease. The nipple of the breast may also tend to point downward. In post- menopausal women, breast atrophy is aggravated by the inelasticity of over-stretched, aged skin. The loss of estrogen reduces breast size and fullness.
Estrogen is also essential to maintaining a fibrous protein called collagen , which makes up much of the breast's connective tissue. Plastic surgeons describe the degree of breast sagging using a ptosis scale like the modified Regnault ptosis scale below:  . University of Kentucky plastic surgeon Brian Rinker encountered many women in his practice who attributed their sagging breasts to breastfeeding , which was also the usual belief among medical practitioners.
They studied the women's medical history, body mass index BMI , their number of pregnancies , their breast cup size before pregnancy, and smoking status. The study results were presented at a conference of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.
According to Rinker's research, there are several key factors. A history of cigarette smoking "breaks down a protein in the skin called elastin , which gives youthful skin its elastic appearance and supports the breast.
This is more true for larger-breasted women. Many women mistakenly attribute the changes and their sagging breasts to breastfeeding,  and as a result some are reluctant to nurse their infants. Research shows that breastfeeding is not the factor that many thought it was.
When running, breasts may move three dimensionally: vertically, horizontally and laterally, in an overall figure-8 motion. Unrestrained movement of large breasts may contribute to sagging over time. Encapsulation bras reduce motion in two of the three planes, while compression bras reduce motion in only one plane. Anatomically, a female's breasts do not contain any muscle but are composed of soft, glandular tissue.
Breasts are composed of mammary glands , milk ducts , adipose tissue fat tissue and Cooper's ligaments. Mammary glands remain relatively constant throughout life.
Fat tissue surrounds the mammary glands, and its volume will normally vary throughout life. Although the exact mechanisms that determine breast shape and size are largely unknown,  the amount and distribution of fat tissue and, to a lesser extent, mammary tissue, cause variations in breast size, shape and volume. Some experts believe Cooper's ligaments, which are connective tissue with the breast, provide some support within breasts,  but there's no agreement on whether they provide support or simply divide breast tissue into compartments.
Since breasts are an external organ and do not contain muscle, exercise cannot improve their shape. They are not protected from external forces and are subject to gravity. Many women mistakenly believe that breasts cannot anatomically support themselves and that wearing a brassiere will prevent their breasts from sagging later in life.
Some women with ptosis choose to undergo plastic surgery to make their breasts less ptotic. Plastic surgeons offer several procedures for lifting sagging breasts. Surgery to correct the size, contour, and elevation of sagging breasts is called mastopexy. The breast-lift procedure surgically elevates the parenchymal tissue breast mass , cuts and re-sizes the skin envelope, and transposes the nipple-areola complex higher upon the breast hemisphere.
If sagging is present and the woman opts not to undergo mastopexy, implants are typically placed above the muscle, to fill out the breast skin and tissue. Submuscular placement can result in deformity. In these cases, the implant appears to be high on the chest, while the natural breast tissue hangs down over the implant. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Ptosis disambiguation. Main article: Breast. Main article: Brassiere. Main article: Mastopexy. Aesthetic Surgery Journal.
Lay summary — LiveScience November 2, May Annals of Plastic Surgery. The Independent. Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 3 February Retrieved February 2, The Complete Book of Breast Care. Whether you have always worn a bra or always gone braless, age and breastfeeding will naturally cause your breasts to sag. March Channel 4.
Archived from the original on 2 May Journal of Sports Sciences. Lay summary — ScienceDaily September 23, Sports Medicine. Retrieved 12 March Retrieved 10 May ICD - 9-CM : Breast disease N60—N64 , — Mastitis Nonpuerperal mastitis Subareolar abscess Granulomatous mastitis.
Benign mammary dysplasia Duct ectasia of breast Chronic cystic mastitis Mammoplasia Gynecomastia Adipomastia lipomastia, pseudogynecomastia Breast hypertrophy Breast atrophy Micromastia Amastia Anisomastia Breast engorgement. Nipple discharge Galactorrhea Inverted nipple Cracked nipples Nipple pigmentation. Galactocele Breast cyst Breast hematoma Breast lump Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.