Declension of Nouns. Declension is made by adding terminations to different stem endings, vowel or consonant. Adjectives are generally declined like nouns, and are etymologically to be classed with them, but they have some peculiarities of inflection which will be later explained. The nominative is the case of the subject of a sentence and predicate nominative. The accusative is the case of the direct object of a verb.
The Athematic stems are more archaic, and they are classified further by their ablaut behaviour: acro-dynamicprotero-dynamichystero-dynamic and holo-dynamicafter the positioning of the early PIE accent dynamis in the paradigm. N OTE 1. The animate plural paradigm is reconstructed as PIH nom. The general rule, observed in Skr. Third Edition. It is thus declined:. Suggest an Edit. See BeekesFortsonClackson
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Because these rules for accentuation are so regular, accent marks are not ordinarily included when writing Latin; in this text, however, accents are provided in both the "paradigms" sample declensions and conjugations and the chapter vocabularies, as an aid to correct pronunciation. Accent Audio downloads may be delayed a few seconds depending on the speed of your Internet connection. Deponent Verbs LaFleur and HarperCollinsPublishers www. Or the nominative inflection Latin fourth declension with accents monosyllabic one syllable. If the hyphen appears in other parts of the paradigm, it indicates that the nominative form should be used. These are the main differences: The genitive plural is -ium instead of -um. Continue onto Final Exhortation. Numerals; Genitive and Ablative Uses Examples: mare seaportal portaltemplar templar.
The Nominative is formed from the stem by adding s.
- Referring to the top two tables — since third declension nouns have a variety of different endings -a, -e, -i, -o, -c, -l, -n, -r, -s, -t, -x, and -y in some cases , the paradigm charts above mark the nominative case with a hyphen.
- Because these rules for accentuation are so regular, accent marks are not ordinarily included when writing Latin; in this text, however, accents are provided in both the "paradigms" sample declensions and conjugations and the chapter vocabularies, as an aid to correct pronunciation.
Declension of Nouns. Declension is made by adding terminations to different stem endings, vowel or consonant. Adjectives are generally declined like nouns, and are etymologically to be classed with them, but they have some peculiarities of inflection which will be later explained.
The nominative is the case of the subject of a sentence and predicate nominative. The accusative is the case of the direct object of a verb. It is used also with many prepositions. The genitive may generally be translated by the English possessive. The dative, the case of the indirect object. It also indicates possession, and beneficiary of an action. N OTE. Nouns and adjectives are inflected in LIE in four regular declensions, distinguished by their final phonemes — characteristic of the stem —, and by the opposition of different forms in irregular nouns.
The stem of a noun may be found, if a consonant stem, by omitting the case-ending; if a vowel stem, by substituting for the case-ending the characteristic vowel. Stem ending. Most Indo-Europeanists tend to distinguish at least two major types of declension for the oldest PIE, thematic and athematic.
Thematic nominal stems are formed with a suffix - o - also - e - , and the stem does not undergo ablaut , i. It is sometimes separated from the athematic declension into a new class, even if being originally consonantal, because of such peculiarities; so e. Stems in consonant, i , and u , are more archaic, and they are classified further by their ablaut behaviour into different so-called dynamic patterns, after the positioning of the early PIE accent in the paradigm.
In LIE, however, there are pragmatic reasons to distinguish them. See H. Rix FS Risch To be consistent with decisions taken elsewhere in this grammar as e. The genitive singular is common to animates and inanimates, it is formed with - s : - s , - es , - os. An alternative possibility is extended - os - jo. In the plural, there are two series of declensions, instr. Comparison shows an ins. Celtiberian dat. Conversely, - m - would have established itself in Balto-Slavic and Germanic.
Kortlandt and Beekes reconstruct an original Dat. That proposal has been questioned e. The Leiden position has been questioned on the grounds of the late and dialectal character of BSl. It is cross-linguistically common for postpositions to develop into case-endings.
We generally prefer to write the only the forms in - bh - in this grammar, though, given the extension of those forms in all PIE territory, against the forms in - m -, limited to Germanic and Balto-Slavic. In any case, when writing these endings, one should keep in mind that they are dialectally distributed in a uniform way, so that forms in - bh - are not found in the same branches as those in - m -; i.
Inanimates have a syncretic form for nom. Inanimates have a nom. A convention is therefore followed in this book, using short - a to distinguish the overlapping neu. All animates share the same form in the plural for nom. The so-called oblique cases - opposed to the straight ones, nom. Straight cases are generally identified with strong cases those which do not undergo ablaut in athematic declension , while the rest are the weak cases. IE languages show an irregular oblique declension system, especially in the plural, due to its syncretic original nature and to late dialectal merging trends.
Sanskrit or Avestan had 8 cases. Anatolian and Italic dialects show up to 8 cf. First Declension. First Declension Paradigm. The IE first declension corresponds loosely to the Latin first declension cf. The ablative sg. It is therefore identical to those nouns in r , n , s of the fourth declension, but for some details in vocalism: the gen. The zero-grade of the nom. First Declension in Examples.
Clackson Because they were not productive in nouns already in IEDs, the declension of the attested nouns is frozen as an athematic stem from which they derive.
Its declension is reconstructed as nom. It is normally identical to the nominative, but disambiguation could happen with distinct vowel grades, i. A dat. Beekes The Plural in the First Declension. The following table presents the plural paradigm of the a-stem declension. The plural is reconstructed as from PIH nom. From Beekes , Clackson The obliques have also special dialectal forms Gk. Second Declension. Second Declension Paradigm.
They can be animates and inanimates, as well as adjectives. The inanimates have an ending - m in nom. The animates, with a nominative in - s , are generally masculine in nouns and adjectives, but there are also feminine nouns and animate i. By this is meant that through time, especially at the end of the Proto-Indo-European period and into the early histories of the individual Indo-European languages, the o-stems appeared to proliferate and replace other stem types.
In Vedic Sanskrit, for example, they constitute more than half of all nouns. High productivity is often interpreted as evidence that the o-stems are a later declensional form than many of the other stems. Highly productive forms are ultimately capable of replacing many other forms as they provide the most active model by which speakers might decline a form.
The IE second declension is equivalent to the second declension in Latin cf. N OTE 1. So, this paradigm could be read from a historical point of view as nom. NOTE 2. The thematic declension is usually reconstructed in the singular as from older PIH nom. As we have seen, - d and - t are pronounced alike at the end of the word, so the difference is mainly an etymological one.
Second Declension in Examples. The original genitive form - os is rare in animates, as the genitive had to be distinguished from the nominative. In Hittite, the genitive - os is found, so it is usually considered the oldest form, as in the athematic declension. A generalised - osjo is found in Sanskrit, Armenian, Greek and Italic, so this alternative ending must have replaced - os early, still within the LIE community.
The Plural in the Second Declension. The animate plural paradigm is reconstructed as PIH nom. See Beekes , Fortson , Clackson Locative in - oisu , PGk. Third Declension. Third Declension Paradigm. This declension usually corresponds to Latin nouns of the third declension in - i cf. The obliques show weak stems root ablaut and accent shift in some nouns.
The proterodynamic paradigm for u-stems is reconstructed in the sg. See Beekes The - s can indicate nominative and genitive: the distinction is made through the full-grade or extension of the vowel before the declension, see below.
In i, u. Nominative sg. The genitive singular shows two inflection types:. NOTE 1. About both types of inflection, a description was made by Wackernagel-Debrunner Altindische Grammatik , 3 vols. Accordingly, even if this theory is accepted, the necessary leveling to get to the usual reconstruction must have been complete in the parent language. For a dat. The older Hitt. Type I.
If a word uses this inflection, the ablative for it is also changed to -i. These are the main differences: The genitive plural is -ium instead of -um. Examples mater, matris f , mother Case Singular Plural nom. Formation and Comparision of Adverbs Verbs; 1st and 2nd Conjugations 2. Examples: ignis gen. The neuter plural forms of -a become -ia.
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The Nominative is formed from the stem by adding s. In the accusative singular e is always short. To provide readers of Greek and Latin with high interest texts equipped with media, vocabulary, and grammatical, historical, and stylistic notes.
Jump to Navigation. Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar. Nouns of the 5th Declension are declined as follows. Charts PDF:. XML Files:. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, ISBN: Suggest an Edit. Mission To provide readers of Greek and Latin with high interest texts equipped with media, vocabulary, and grammatical, historical, and stylistic notes.