Psychological considerations of the older | Psychological Care of the Elderly

In the U. These older adults have different special needs some with mental and behavioral health problems. They hinder their daily routine, and even more when the older adult is also suffering from a medical condition or a family problem caused by the death of a loved one. Addressing these problems is important to alleviate emotional suffering and improve physical and mental health and promote a better quality of life. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of the aging body and mind are poorly understood even today.

Psychological considerations of the older adult

Psychological considerations of the older adult

Psychological considerations of the older adult

Psychological considerations of the older adult

Mental health-specific health promotion for older adults involves creating living conditions and environments that support wellbeing and allow people to lead a healthy life. Allowing individuals to exercise control in their environment and integrating personal preference into their care Psychological considerations of the older adult ways to enhance consumer satisfaction and quality of life Kane ; Kane and Psychoolgical ; Kearney and McKnight ; Rader and Tornquist Firth-Cozens J, Cornwell J. I am able to recognize the psychosocial needs of older patients. Firestone I. It allows us to understand why some family members are very close with one another, despite the huge age gap and living conditions, while others remain distant and shallow.

Selena gomez in a bikini. Introduction

Mental Status Examination Psychological considerations of the older adult mental status examination assesses the function of the brain. Effective videos are those in which older adults are featured and portrayed in a positive manner. Suggest that the patient perform a learned behavior regularly, for example, every time teeth are brushed, a favorite television show is watched, or after the dog is walked. For example, depression can range conziderations a reactive sadness stemming from minor occurrences to grief a normal response to painful loss and to clinical depression with symptoms causing impairment in daily functioning. These resources provide information to help understand these Hardcore glory hole. Select Internet Resources for Health Professionals. Schedule teaching sessions in mid-morning when energy levels are high. Newman underscored that older adults do benefit from physical activity. Older White men are one of the fastest growing groups at risk for suicide. Unresolved spiritual issues will inhibit recovery.

This research aimed to gain an understanding of the psychosocial support needs of older patients in the out-of-hospital setting from the perspective of paramedics.

  • Tamara R.
  • Adults age 65 and older represent an ever-growing portion of the United States population.
  • Inadequate health literacy disproportionately affects older adults in the United States.

Verified by Psychology Today. By , the number of Americans age 65 and over is projected to be about Recent research has also shown that most older Americans today report better health than older cohorts did in the past.

As more people are living longer, more individuals can expect to spend more time in retirement than those in previous generations did. And even though older Americans tend to live longer and healthier lives than previous generations, many adults in midlife fail to commit to healthy routines that will affect their health later in life. Research has established the physical and mental advantages of a consistent exercise regimen.

Screening programs can lead to preventive measures and early treatment interventions, which can substantially reduce the later impact of illnesses. Nutrition also influences the progression of many diseases, and research has demonstrated that good nutrition habits can reduce the length of a later hospital stays.

Assessments of the quality of life of older individuals tend to focus health and finance, but second and third careers, lifelong learning, leisure pursuits, voluntary work, and caregiving can also contribute, positively or negatively, to future quality of life. Poor health is not an inevitable consequence of aging. Chronic conditions such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and arthritis are the most common and costly health concerns of individuals later in life.

They exact a particularly heavy health and economic burden due to associated long-term illness, diminished quality of life, and greatly increased health-care costs.

Hearing and vision problems are also frequently encountered and are often thought of as natural signs of aging. However, early detection and treatment can often prevent, postpone, or lessen some of the debilitating physical, social, and emotional effects that these impairments can have on the lives of older people.

Mental disorders experienced by older adults may differ from those experienced by younger people, which can make accurate diagnosis and treatment difficult. For example, an older person who is depressed may be more likely to report physical symptoms such as insomnia or aches and pains rather than feelings of sadness or worthlessness.

Many physicians and other health professionals may not provide effective mental-health care because they receive inadequate training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in older adults. Furthermore, mental disorders represent a grave threat to the health and well-being of older adults. Older adults are disproportionately likely to die by suicide. Comprising only 13 percent of the U. White men age 85 and older are especially vulnerable, with a suicide rate five times greater than that of the general population.

Mental disorders can also negatively affect the ability of older people to recover from other health problems. Research has shown that people with depression are at greater risk of developing heart disease.

Furthermore, people with heart disease who are depressed have an increased risk of death after a heart attack compared with those who are not depressed. The occurrence of Alzheimer's disease AD is not a normal development in the aging process. AD is characterized by a gradual loss of memory , decline in the ability to perform routine tasks, disorientation, difficulty in learning, loss of language skills, impaired judgment, an inability to plan, and personality changes.

Over time, these changes become so severe that they interfere with an individual's daily functioning, resulting eventually in death. While the disease can last from three to 20 years after the onset of symptoms, the average duration is eight years. Alzheimer's disease affects as many as four million Americans. The disease usually begins after the age of 60, and risk increases with age.

Most people diagnosed with AD are older than However, it is possible for the disease to occur in people in their 40s and 50s. Research has shown links between some genes and AD, but in about 90 percent of cases, there is no clear genetic link. Early and careful evaluation is important, because many conditions, including some that are treatable or reversible, may cause dementia -like symptoms.

Examples of such treatable medical conditions are depression, nutritional deficiencies, adverse drug interactions, and metabolic changes.

Being "down in the dumps" over a period of time is not a normal part of growing old. But it is a common problem, and medical help may be needed. For most people, depression can be treated successfully. Talk therapies, drugs, or other methods of treatment can ease the pain of depression.

There are many reasons why depression in older people is often missed or untreated. As a person ages, the signs of depression are much more likely to be dismissed as crankiness or grumpiness. Depression can also be tricky to recognize. Confusion or attention problems caused by depression can sometimes look like Alzheimer's disease or other brain disorders. Mood changes and signs of depression can be caused by medicines older people may take for high blood pressure or heart disease.

Depression can happen at the same time as other chronic diseases. It can be hard for a doctor to diagnose depression, but the good news is that people who are depressed can get better with the right treatment. Aging is a natural process, but a healthy lifestyle can do much to slow the degeneration of body and mind. The treatment section below contains more specific information on preventive measures.

Many people mistakenly believe that mental disorders like depression or dementia are normal in older people and that no effective treatments are available. Another myth suggests that older people cannot change, experience psychological and spiritual growth, or contribute to society. Therefore, efforts to enhance their mental health might mistakenly be considered futile.

The subject of mental illness still makes some people uncomfortable. Some feel that getting help is a sign of weakness. Many older people, their relatives, or friends may mistakenly believe that a depressed person can quickly "snap out of it" or that some people are too old to be helped.

Once the decision is made to get medical advice, start with the family doctor. The doctor should check to see if there are medical or drug-related reasons for the depression. After a complete exam, the doctor may suggest talking to a mental-health specialist. The special nature of depression in older people has led to a new medical specialty: geriatric psychiatry. Be aware that some family doctors may not understand aging and depression.

They may not be interested in these complaints. Or, they may not know what to do. If your doctor is unable or unwilling to take your concerns about depression seriously, you may want to consult another health care provider. If a depressed older person won't go to a doctor for treatment, relatives or friends can help by explaining how treatment may help the person feel better.

In some cases, when an older person can't or won't go to the doctor, the doctor or mental-health specialist can start by participating in a phone call. The telephone can't take the place of the personal contact needed for a complete medical checkup, but it can break the ice.

Sometimes a home visit can be made. Don't avoid getting help because you are afraid of how much treatment might cost. Short-term psychotherapy , with or without medication, will work in many case and is often covered by insurance. Also, community mental health centers offer treatment based on a person's ability to pay.

There is no known cure for Alzheimer's disease. However, scientists have found some medications that may help control some of the symptoms. People with AD must work closely with their doctor to determine which drugs and activities are best for them, because reaction to medications varies for each person. Research has shown that a healthy lifestyle is more influential than genetic factors in helping older people avoid the deterioration often associated with aging.

People who are physically active, eat a healthy diet, do not use tobacco, and practice other healthy behaviors reduce their risk of suffering from chronic disease and have half the rate of disability compared with those who do not.

Screening to detect chronic diseases such as diabetes or cancers of the breast, cervix, and colon early in their course can save many lives.

Immunizations against influenza and pneumococcal disease will also reduce a person's risk for hospitalization and death from these diseases. Other preventative measures include removing tripping hazards in the home and installing grab bars, which can greatly reduce the risk of falls and fractures. Regular exercise is a preventative measure that will enhance quality of life.

Research has shown that even among frail and very old adults, mobility and functioning can be improved through physical activity. However, anyone at risk for any chronic diseases, such as heart disease or diabetes, or who smokes or is overweight, should first check with her doctor before becoming more physically active. Older adults also have special considerations:. Plan on making physical activity a part of your everyday life.

Do things you enjoy. Go for brisk walks. Ride a bike. And don't stop doing physical tasks around the house and in the yard. Trim your hedges without a power tool. Climb stairs. Rake leaves. None of the exercises you do should hurt or make you feel really tired.

You might feel soreness, a slight discomfort, or a little weariness, but you should not feel pain. Physical activity and exercise will probably make you feel better. Finally, exercising the mind is as important as keeping physically active. Recent research suggests that people who regularly engage in mentally stimulating activities such as reading, playing games, doing puzzles, listening to the radio, and visiting museums have a decreased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

Thus the Japanese proverb "We begin aging when we stop learning" may well prove accurate. Back Psychology Today. Back Find a Therapist.

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Accessed February 3, This is a medical doctor or doctor of osteopathy who has specialized training in psychiatric issues who manages complex mental health issues that are out of the scope of the primary care provider. Am J Orthopsychiatry. Any substances used in the past should be recorded. Interactive Clinical Scenarios. Holistic Caring.

Psychological considerations of the older adult

Psychological considerations of the older adult

Psychological considerations of the older adult

Psychological considerations of the older adult

Psychological considerations of the older adult. Universality

Older White men are one of the fastest growing groups at risk for suicide. In addition to the above disorders, the counselor should be aware of the possibility for substance use, including abuse of alcohol and prescription medications.

Substance abuse or dependence is often overlooked within this population because of their reduced social and occupational functioning. Signs may more often present as poor self-care, unexplained falls, malnutrition, and medial illnesses.

Counselors should also be able to identify chronic mental illness and personality disorders when they occur in elderly clients. As young people with a chronic mental illness age, they become older adults with a chronic mental illness.

Although the severity of behaviors associated with personality disorders is often thought to diminish with age, the severity may increase under stress or as individuals experience a loss of control, such as a change in living situation. When indicated, a combination of medication and counseling can be a successful intervention for psychological symptoms.

Both individual and group counseling are available for older adults seeking mental health treatment. Individual counseling provides older clients the time and privacy to discuss thoughts and feelings they may be experiencing. Group counseling has also been shown to be efficacious with an elderly population, and it provides an additional benefit of decreased isolation through interaction among members.

Common types of groups include reminiscence integrating past memories into present-day functioning , interpersonal exploring personal interactions and relationships , current events encouraging attention to current news , and adjustment focusing on transitions. A clinical interview is often sufficient, but additional age-sensitive instruments e. In addition, counselors should be knowledgeable of when to refer e. Once an elderly client accesses mental health care, several adaptations to the traditional format allow the counseling experience to be of maximum benefit.

Counselors need to be aware of the social context in which their older adult clients exist and the challenges of navigating an ageist world. For many older adults, entering into counseling is a new and possibly intimidating experience. Education about the counseling process may assist with rapport building and setting appropriate expectations. By outlining the logistics of the sessions e. Counselors may allow for additional time to explain the progression of counseling, describing their theoretical orientation and therapeutic approach in a jargon-free manner, using concrete terms and examples when possible.

Choice of terminology is significant, as counselors may wish to refrain from using more informal language e. A general awareness of the social impact of wars, the Great Depression, and other historical events may help clients to feel that the counselor is interested in understanding their stage in life.

Although each person will experience events in a unique way, a basic understanding about major events this cohort has survived may facilitate the therapeutic process. Older clients may exhibit physical declines that affect the course of therapy. They may have difficulty hearing, and provisions can be made to ease the frustrations of both parties to the counseling relationship.

This may mean that the counselor must enunciate more clearly, speak louder, speak in a deeper voice, and possibly speak more slowly, or it may mean that the client requires assistive devices such as hearing aids or an amplification set. Because some clients may have decreased eyesight, counselors may wish to have written materials in large print. They should be prepared if older clients experience physical limitations preventing them from completing paperwork or providing a signature.

In addition, counselors may want to decrease the pace of therapy; this may be an effective method of ensuring client understanding. Clinicians should be prepared for clients that have overall changes in memory functioning; clinicians may need to use more repetition, provide hands-on material, and focus on events and emotions that are more easily recalled.

Complex and jargon-filled interpretations will likely not be successful, as many older adults may be more receptive to pragmatic and problem-solving techniques. In addition, modifications to therapy may be necessary due to caregiving issues or living situation.

As a person ceases working outside the home, becomes less able to participate in the community, or experiences family and friends passing away, the potential to become isolated intensifies. Focus is often placed on a spouse or family members, but this is accompanied by conflicting feelings, as many older adults worry about becoming a burden to their family.

On occasion, caregivers might be included in the counseling process to explore such concerns. Unique issues also arise given various living environments, as older adults who live independently in the community experience different challenges than those living with family, those with the help of a caregiver, or those living in an assisted living facility or long-term care facility. Counselors need to understand the system in which the client lives, so they can better recognize and appreciate the corresponding challenges that may arise.

For instance, if a client living in a long-term care facility complains of clothes that are missing and being worn by someone else, the counselor must determine if the client is demonstrating signs of paranoia or memory deficits, describing a thief that is employed in the building, or describing a situation that the facility must address within their laundry department.

As both client and counselor learn more about societal perceptions of older adulthood, they must be aware of the potential dynamics that may develop. Most occur on the same level, from a standing height, as by tripping while walking rather than falling down stairs.

Some evidence indicates that physical activity or a combination of balance and strengthening ac- tivity programs may reduce falls in older individuals.

For example, in a randomized trial involving frail older women, Campbell et al. In addition, the exercise group had a significant 40 percent decrease in injurious falls. However, the studies generally covered a short period of evaluation 2 to 8 years. Intervention studies suggest that exercise train- ing has a positive effect on executive control processes. These processes include planning, scheduling, working memory, and multitasking. Mean differences in baseline cognitive function scores showed a sig- nificant value for trend by quartile of walking for four of five tests of cognitive function Weuve et al.

Two meta-analyses have been conducted of intervention trials that address physical activity and cogni- tive function Colcombe and Kramer, ; Heyn et al. In non- demented older adults, the estimated effect size was 0. Fielding highlighted the need to conduct more basic studies to identify the areas of the brain that are activated by exercise and the mechanisms of action by which exercise exerts its effects.

Concluding Remarks In closing, Dr. Fielding provided his perspective on information needs and on reasons for specific physical activity guidelines for older Americans. This is especially important if guidelines will be developed to apply to older individuals with several comorbid- ities and functional limitations, as well as to older healthy persons. Older persons have more medical conditions and comorbidities than do younger persons, and they are at increased risk of injury.

In addition, long-term adherence to physical participation can be an issue, especially for older adults with functional limitations. In the LIFE-P study The LIFE Investigators, , over the course of 1 year, about half the sub- jects had to suspend participation in moderate physical activity for a pe- riod because of a health problem.

Thus effective strategies that can help older adults resume physical activity following these common health transitions merit consideration when developing physical activity guide- lines for this population.

Newman Background In contrast with common perception, the rates of disability for activi- ties of daily living defined as difficulty with self-care are rather low about 1 to 2 percent in older persons.

Rates of loss of mobility, how- ever, are much higher. After age 70, the rate of incident mobility diffi- culty is 10 percent per year, and about one-third of the affected individuals have severe mobility disability Penninx et al. The acute declines and limited recovery from such intermittent health events may further accelerate functional decline and ultimately lead to disability.

As mentioned earlier in this session by Dr. Fielding, longitudinal data show a decline in maximal oxygen consumption with aging. Al- though those who are active maintain higher oxygen consumption, the. Newman agreed with Dr. Thus physical activity may interfere with or retard both disease pathways and age-related decline in the pathway to disability.

Weight tends to fluctuate and decline after about age 70 years Roberts and Williamson, Many older persons will lose weight at a low level of food intake and a very low level of energy expendi- ture Newman et al.

In the Dynamics of Health, Aging and Body Composition Study Health ABC , only three-quarters of older adults who reported no difficulty walking a quarter of a mile could actually do so at examination Newman et al. Need for a Consistent Message Dr.

There is a need for a message about goals that address ability and for methods to measure ability. A majority of adults older than 70 years have difficulty with treadmill testing, and many cannot provide a useful self- report of their ability to walk a distance Sayers et al. Notably, Newman et al. Newman underscored that older adults do benefit from physical activity. Comprehensive messages need to be developed, and the recommendations need to be individualized to the developmental period in the life course.

Finally, objective assessment of the functional capacity of older adults needs to be incorporated into clinical practice for appropriate goal setting. In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Ag- ing, the rate of loss for persons in their seventies and eighties was approximately 20 to 30 percent per decade.

Since the rate of loss is about the same for persons at different levels of fitness, it becomes even more important for inactive persons to increase their level of aerobic capacity through physical activity. Focus- ing efforts on prevention could help raise fitness levels above the threshold for disability, thus helping prevent disability. A fair. Observational studies have serious limitations.

Carrying excess weight is an independent factor in predicting disability. In particular, greater amounts of physical activity reduced mortality rates.

Aerobic work capacity in men and women with special refer- ence to age. Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico.

Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women. Colcombe S, Kramer AF. Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: A meta-analytic study. Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Exercise training and nutritional supplementation for physical frailty in very elderly people. Accelerated longitudinal decline of aerobic capacity in healthy older adults. Skeletal muscle fiber quality in older men and women.

The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. The effects of exercise training on elderly persons with cognitive impairment and dementia: A meta-analysis. Physical disability among the aging. Late life function and disability instrument: I. Development and evaluation of the disability component. Have we oversold the benefit of late-life exercise? Exercise, cognition, and the aging brain. Systematic review of progressive resistance strength training in older adults.

J Gerontol 61A The escalating pan- demics of obesity and sedentary lifestyle. A call to action for clinicians. Age-associated loss of power and strength in the upper extremities in women and men. Muscle qual- ity and age: Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Strength improvements with 1 yr of progressive resis- tance training in older women.

Nagi SZ. Some conceptual issues in disability and rehabilitation. In: Sussman MB. Sociology and Rehabilitation. Effects of high intensity strength training on multiple risk factors for os- teoporotic fractures. Association of long-distance corridor walk performance with mortality, car- diovascular disease, mobility limitation, and disability.

High-intensity resistance training improves muscle strength, self-reported function, and disability in long-term stroke survivors. Inflammatory markers and incident mobility limitation in the elderly. Causes of adult weight gain. Use of self-report to predict ability to walk meters in mobility- limited older adults. The disablement process.

Aging | Psychology Today

In the U. These older adults have different special needs some with mental and behavioral health problems. They hinder their daily routine, and even more when the older adult is also suffering from a medical condition or a family problem caused by the death of a loved one. Addressing these problems is important to alleviate emotional suffering and improve physical and mental health and promote a better quality of life.

The molecular and cellular mechanisms of the aging body and mind are poorly understood even today. Age-related changes are not only limited to physical aspects but also to metabolic, urogenital, digestive and neurological processes. Most older adults have problems with cognitive function and speech perception as the years pass by.

Cognitive function is defined as the intellectual process by which an individual becomes aware of, comprehends and perceives ideas. It includes all aspects of reasoning, thinking, perception and remembering. According to clinical studies, there is a correlation between aging and cognitive decline. Evidence indicates that neural stem cells located in certain brain regions have a major role in cognitive functions like memory, learning and emotional behavior.

These neural stem cells proliferate over time, causing a reduced ability to learn as well as memory performance. Furthermore, older adults also experience a change in their speech perception. They usually complain that talkers mumble or talk too fast and they cannot hear clearly because of background noise. This change is attributed to deteriorating cognitive processes like memory, attention span, language comprehension and lower level sensory plasticity.

Studies reveal that declining cognitive function affects speech perception among older adults. The way they process information is slower than younger individuals. Healthcare workers who provide care to the elderly should always consider their speech perception and cognition. Depression is, unfortunately, a common occurrence among older adults. The fact that their activities and social interactions are more limited, and their nearest and dearest are often living far away, makes the adjustment to old age harder.

Thus, most elderly face problems with self-perception and self-concept. The theory of self-perception suggests that individuals infer opinions, attitudes, and internal states mostly through observing the behavior and circumstances in which they occur.

On the other hand, self-concept is defined as the way an individual thinks, evaluates and perceives his self. These two concepts change as an individual ages. It has been observed that healthy older adults have more positive self-perception and self-concept compared to those who are lonely and suffer from health issues. Consequently, healthcare providers, especially those who are the primary caregiversm should encourage seniors to have a positive attitude towards aging.

This can help them increase their desire to live and make them more resilient to disease and mental illness. Promoting a positive self-perception and self-concept entails a lot of effort on the part of the caregiver. An older adult should be immersed in various social activities to regain a sense of hope and excitement about life. This can be done by making strong social connections within the locality and allowing the elderly to be involved in activities organized by various support groups.

Most older adults placed in assisted living facilities interact with and meet other residents who share similar interests. For those who are living in their own home, joining church meetings, local gathering and social celebrations are helpful ways to foster positive aging.

Nonetheless, a healthy aging process involves meaningful relationships with the family and significant others. Older adults should not be left at home doing nothing. They should be encouraged to engage in family activities and gatherings that minimize isolation.

Self-perception and self-concept are directly affected by what the person does every day, so planning in advance is essential to make various activities possible. Most of us are lucky enough to live in a family setting.

It provides us with the necessary resources needed to become independent as children and stay independent as we age. Other than financial support, our families are also a source of physical and emotional care. Elderly individuals who have been with their families for years, and sometimes decades, understand their value. But we must take into account that an aging person and the family are only a small part of a much larger society.

Society as a whole has an impact on the resources and services made available to all older adults and families. In discussing aging, generation and cohort are two of the most frequently used terms. A generation is a group of individuals having the same step or line of family.

Children, parents, grandparents and even great-grandparents mirror different generations. Individuals who belong to the same generation often have similar roles, responsibilities or expectations. They have different ideas about family and the personal responsibilities that need to be done. On the other hand, the word cohort is used when society as a whole is described.

It defines a group of individuals born at the same time in history, who share common beliefs and experiences. For instance, baby boomers or those born in to are a cohort. They have had an experience of a traditional family where the father works for their family and the mother stays at home for the children.

Every individual belongs to a certain cohort. Clashes between these cohorts take place when individuals fail to recognize the differences in their lifestyle and experiences.

We often see the ideal image of a perfect family in the print media, television, movies and online resources. Family members help one another and rarely argue about anything, but when they do so, they solve it in a peaceful manner.

However, arguments and disagreements between family members in real life are much more complex and difficult to resolve. Disagreements are often due to the differences between generations.

Children, parents and grandparents have complex inter-generational relationships. Some of them are emotionally close while others are very distant. Hence, researchers use three dimensions to better understand families, especially the aging adult: emotional closeness, frequency of contact and social support. Emotional closeness and frequency of contact have an enormous impact on inter-generational relationships. It allows us to understand why some family members are very close with one another, despite the huge age gap and living conditions, while others remain distant and shallow.

In the context of geriatric nursing, social support is provided by one or several adult children in spite of distance, time and competing responsibilities.

Older adults usually rely on family members, especially when they have chronic illnesses. The majority of our disabled elderly seek help from their immediate families. Some prefer to receive help from their children, spouses and immediate relatives, especially when it comes to driving, buying food and medicine and routine daily activities. However, there some older adults who prefer not to burden their loved ones and seek the help of healthcare professionals.

This allows the family to place the elderly in a long-term care facility where professionals can look after them.

When this decision is made, it is still important for the family members to provide emotional support and attention to ensure quality of life. No healthcare professional, no matter how committed, can truly replace family support.

During emergency situations, stress and anxiety are the natural fight and flight instincts of our body. These stressors can either be external an intruder crawling through your window or internal a financial problem within the family or worry over an older adult with a mental or physical problem. Thus, when stressful challenges occur, our body senses danger and releases stress hormones into the bloodstream which increases heart rate, breathing, and other processes that prepare you to respond quickly.

This natural reaction is also known as a stress response. For instance, studies show that stress and anxiety that occur in older adults are associated with physical problems like difficulty in carrying activities of daily living and other health problems like coronary artery disease and a decreased sense of well-being. Coping with stress or preventing it from overwhelming us is often easier said than done. However, if you make an extra effort to deal with it, you can always smooth the aging process.

Encouraging the elderly to participate in community activities and social gatherings will allow him or her to divert attention and enhance self-esteem and alleviate stress.

Older adults obviously have different interests than young people, so take time to find out what will minimize the stress of the older person in your care and guide them towards it! Whether it is ballroom dancing, church activities, or camaraderie with friends or relatives, the end outcome is the same: reduced levels of stress hormones in the body and a better quality of life. Healthy dietary habits and regular exercise will also help the elderly cope with stress better.

However, if it becomes apparent that nothing you say or do works and the older adult cannot handle stress well, seeking help and talking to a psychologist may be beneficial. This healthcare professional will teach the elderly to manage their stress through various different relaxation techniques and mental exercises that you may not be familiar with. If the problem is more severe, they may refer the older adult to a psychiatrist able to relieve their symptoms of stress and depression with medication.

Each of us has our own values and beliefs developed over time. The sense of who we are and how we perceive the world is influenced by our family, friends, and experiences. As healthcare workers, we are often exposed to patients with different life experiences and views. It is our duty and responsibility to be aware of personal values and beliefs and ensure to empower the patient fully to make them functional in their families and community.

Values are standards, principles or qualities that a person upholds. Values serve as a guide in our lives to make decisions and live the way we think we should. Beliefs come from real life experiences, but are often forgotten and start to influence us subconsciously.

They can significantly affect the quality of our work and personal relationships with colleagues and friends, and they plays a major role in our identity. Beliefs may be influenced by our morals, culture and religious affiliations.

This stereotyping can affect the way we interact and work with older adults because of assumptions about their actions. This means that he or she does not provide options or services based on what he feels is right, but what is right for the client. Older adults often have an impaired ability to decide for himself, which is why healthcare workers should consider personal values and beliefs.

If we try to impose our own moral values on the elderly, it is likely that we will judge the person rather than help him. Healthcare workers should be a role model to their clients, regardless of behavior. A good client-worker relationship can be achieved by setting aside personal interests, values and beliefs, and making his or her needs a priority while respecting beliefs as well.

Psychological considerations of the older adult

Psychological considerations of the older adult

Psychological considerations of the older adult