Theauthorsprovidethereaderwithsixquestionsaimed at gathering information Smith ragan instructinal model the learning environment. Nicolae Olivia. GeneraldescriptionsforeachphaseoftheSmithandRaganmodelhavebeensummarized fromtheirtext,InstructionalDesign ,andcanbefoundonthenextfewpages. Brief History of Instructional Design, Auth with social network: Registration Forgot your password? Tables provide easy to understand organization of the keycomponentsdescribedintheSmithandRagantext. Pappas, C. A cognitive structure is defined as the mental processes which instructinnal the learner the ability to organize experiences and derive meaning from instructinzl. Allfiguresinthispaperareavailablefrom theInstructorCompanionWebsiteandareduplicatesofthefiguresfoundintheSmithand Ragantext. Smith and Ragan do not propose that their design model is unique.
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- Behavioral objectives.
- Instructional design ID , also known as instructional systems design ISD , is the practice of systematically designing, developing and delivering instructional products and experiences, both digital and physical, in a consistent and reliable fashion towards an efficient, effective, appealing, engaging and inspiring acquisition of knowledge.
Patricia L. She received her Ph. Smith is author of two books and numerous journal articles, technical reports, and chapters on computer-based instruction and instructional design. She has served as president of the Research and Theory Division and as a member of the board of directors of that division as well as the Division of Instructional Development now "Design and Development" of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology.
Her primary areas of interest are instructional design, particularly the design of organizational strategies, design of print-based instruction, instructional feedback, and program evaluation. Tillman J. He received his Ph. Ragan is author of five books and numerous articles, technical reports, and chapters on instructional technology, and he has been a columnist for Educational Technology magazine.
He has served on many committees and has been president of the Research and Theory Division and of the Division of Instructional Development now "Design and Development" of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, vice-president of the International Visual Literacy Association, and co-chair of the Professors of Instructional Design and Technology conference. His area of interest is instructional technology, with particular interest in learner characteristics, visual literacy, and applications of computer technology to the facilitation of learning.
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Instructional designers themselves relate to all phases of designing instruction in that they are both managers of design projects and they deal with management strategies that are a fundamental part of instruction. Kearsley, G. Feedback and reinforcement are important elements and when learners appreciate the results, they will be motivated to learn. This view point was first ignored, but eventually helped to expand the focus of the audiovisual movement. New York: Macmillan.
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However, most current instructional designers writing objectives based on action do not share the behaviorists' disinterest in the cognitive processes that also take place. Rather, they write objectives with an attempt to extract "best evidence" of the cognitive processes that cannot be directly observed.
Ertmer, P. Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6 4 , Smith, P. Instructional design 2nd ed. Dick and Carey instructional design model. Walter Dick and Lou Carey advocate a systems approach model for designing instruction in the fourth edition of their text, The Systematic Design of Instruction. Their work is based on the behaviorist view that there is a predictable link between a stimulus and the response it produces in a learner Colaric, n.
It is the designer's responsibility to determine the sub-skills a student must master in order for the behavior to be learned and choose the stimulus and strategy for instruction in order to assemble the sub-skills. The basic steps in the Dick and Carey instructional design model are as follows:. Colaric, S. Systems approach model for designing instruction. Dick, W. The systematic design of instruction 4th ed.
New York: Harper Collins Publishing. Performance-based assessment. The idea of assessing students based on observable performance started with behaviorism. Once a student can display the proper response following the presentation of a certain environmental stimulus, learning has been achieved. Traditional behaviorist assessment makes no evaluation of the knowledge structure or mental processes leading to a student's response.
Such assessment is used to determine a student's individual competency in skills defined as goals for instruction, as opposed to rank them with other learners. Systems models take information from learning theories and turn them into step-by-step procedures for planning instruction. Systems models were developed in response to problems teachers were having in satisfying the needs of large numbers of students. According to Saettler these models were initially embraced more by military and industrial trainers than by K classroom teachers.
While systems approaches are heavily used in the design and development of self-contained tutorials, teachers can also use the same approach to plan their own directed instruction with technology.
Systems models can help teachers evaluate the effectiveness of their own teaching as well as the usefulness of computer-based resources.
Most instructional design models and methods are rooted in systems models. Roblyer, M. Learning theories and integration models Chapter 3. Prentice Hall. Saettler, P. The evolution of American educational technology. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Cognitive objectives. In addition to observable performance, attention is now given to the underlying "understanding" of a performance.
Bloom's taxonomy addresses the cognitive domain. Strategies that focus on structuring, organizing, and sequencing information for optimal processing are based on cognitivism. For example, outlining, summarizing, synthesizing, and advance organizers.
Robert Gagne, among others who developed taxonomies, made one of the first attempts to classify learning behaviors and supply specific measures for determining different levels of learning. Gagne developed a taxonomy for intellectual skills , one of his five learned capabilities. Closely related to the development of taxonomies are instructional objectives and instructional systems design. Kearsley, G. To determine prerequisite information, an analysis must be done from the learner's novice's perspective, rather than the expert's perspective.
An expert tends to overlook some of the things they needed to know in order to achieve the learning goal. Determining prerequisite skills does not specify instructional strategies. And, how do these interrelationships contribute to the overall process of designing effective instruction? These key principles and assumptions are interrelated in a manner that supports the overall ID process and furthers the implications that ID must be developed by the learner needs and fashioned by the learning environment.
Additionally, ID must consider the learner characteristics of likenesses and differences, stable and changing characteristics, and specific prior world knowledge of the learner during the design process. The more precisely the instructional designer identifies learning goals and analyzes them to determine the necessary components of learning tasks, their prerequisite skills, and knowledge, the more efficient and effective these goals will be attained and the more effective will be the instruction.
Furthermore, the assessment of learning is guided by the goals of the ID system and techniques must be employed to ensure the assessment is adequate in order for the design to be effective. The designer must consider that the assessment design will often require trade-offs in validity, reliability, and practicality, which stem from resource availability and cost.
There is an a priori relationship among instructional strategies that must be developed and utilized by the instructional designer and how these strategies provide a framework for learning both at the macro and micro levels, which are more generative or more supplantive depending on the learning context, task, or the learners themselves, and can be organized around enhanced instructional events.
Moreover, a fundamental element in the design of instruction and its relationship to other elements of instructional design is the character of the learning task, and the effectiveness of instruction that can be improved when the instructional strategies utilize the supporting cognitive demands of disparate types of learning. Appropriate implementation of instruction is essential regardless of how well the instruction is designed, which relates the implementation phase of ID to the design phase.
Instructional designers themselves relate to all phases of designing instruction in that they are both managers of design projects and they deal with management strategies that are a fundamental part of instruction. And, lastly, ID should be technologically appropriate to ensure effective and relevant instruction Smith and Ragan, Utilizing the principles of ID, drawing upon his skills as an instructional designer, and his knowledge in Web Engineering, Malcolm Gibson began the ID process of solving the problem of developing online course instruction by performing a needs assessment, analyzing the general characteristics of his target audience, performing a task analysis, developing an instructional strategy, and deciding on the best means of instructional delivery.
Tsagas and the faculty of Craiger University. His determination was that, indeed, the current face-to-face certificate program needed to be redesigned in order to make it available online through the current CS degree program but, moreover, to make it easier for learners to obtain online certification independently of the CS degree program and increase the availability of IT professionals in the marketplace who only need certification. Learner Analysis Next, Malcolm set about determining the general characteristics of his target audience, the learners at Craiger University.
Malcolm determined, among other things, that his target audience was classified as above-average intelligence, possessing a high aptitude for the specialized area of Information Technology and, in particular, CS and related fields of study. The cognitive processing styles or learning styles of these learners would most likely be categorized as field independent Witkin et al.
And, according to Inhelder and Piaget , the learners would be in the intellectual development stage referred to as formal operations, wherein learners can think abstractly and mentally manipulate symbols without the need for concrete supports, and isolate and work with variables in abstract concepts, in which multiple propositions are present and interacting.
Task Analysis The task analysis process is a means whereby the instructional designer takes the goal s for the learners; that is to say, what the learner should be able to learn following instruction, and breaks these goals down into specific tasks, which are the intermediary steps that must be achieved before the goal s can be attained.
Once these specific tasks have been determined by the instructional designer, a further refinement of the ID process that allows the learners to know what they should be able to do following instruction—and which makes for better instruction to be written—are the learning objectives. Malcolm identified two specific goals and multiple learning objectives in his initial analysis. For each goal and the objectives that were identified in the Task Analysis phase, Malcolm set about developing his lesson plans such that they would activate learner attention, establish instructional purpose, arouse interest and motivation, preview the lesson, recall prior knowledge of the learners, process the information, focus learner attention, employ learning strategies, provide practice, inform the students through evaluative feedback, summarize and review the material, permit knowledge transfer in the learners, assess performance, and provide feedback and remediation.
The rationale for his choosing this type of media for the learners was based on the characteristics of the learners, the learning tasks, and the learning context in addition to the fact that this type of media is most supportive of learners who exhibit the learning task and a type of learning consisting of declarative knowledge, cognitive strategies, and intellectual skills, known as learning enterprises, which Malcolm had identified earlier.
Malcolm also determined that the most appropriate grouping strategy that could be employed for these learners was the small groups interactive strategy.
However, it is noteworthy to mention here that for several decades, researchers have tried to establish that certain media are superior to other forms of media Smith, P. Not surprisingly, these media studies have failed to establish the overall superiority of one particular media over another. Clark and Solomon conclude, "Past research on media has shown quite clearly that no medium enhances learning more than any other medium regardless of learning task, learner traits, symbolic elements, curriculum content, or setting" p.
The instructional design process begins with a needs assessment, first and foremost to make the determination whether there is a problem that instruction can solve or whether instruction is even warranted.
The process continues with the learner analysis, whose aim is to determine the general characteristics of the learner and the learning context. This is followed by the development of an instructional strategy where a strategy for each goal is identified that will arouse interest in the learner and motivate the learner to learn.
Media in teaching. Wittrock Ed. New York: Macmillan. Integrative goals for instructional design. Gardner, H. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL, April Inhelder, B. The growth of logical thinking. New York: Basic Books. Kagan, J. Reflection-impulsivity: The generality and dynamics of conceptual tempo. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Klein, G.
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