Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. Hispanic people are the largest minority in the United States. Only Mexico has a larger Hispanic population than the United States. In , the Census Bureau projected that in , Hispanic people will comprise
March All rights reserved. Los Angeles Times. Business 3. With the increasing Hispanic population in the United States, Latinos have had a considerable impact on the K system. They claim it is misleading because no Latino or Hispanic nationality exists since no Latino state exists, so generalizing the term Latino slights the various national identities included under the umbrella.
Discount sexy wedges. Navigation menu
S or gain legal status. Residents of Central and South American countries usually refer to Mgp sex by national origin, rarely as Latino. Sign up here to get more Demystified stories delivered right to your inbox! Retrieved June 1, The US usage of Latino has been Where are the latinos recently adopted in the Spanish language. Samuel A. Census and the OMB are using the terms differently. This is a native dialect of English, and was developed amongst second and third generations of Cuban Americans in Miami. Hispanics and Latinos are underrepresented in U. Archived from the original on 1 March
All rights reserved.
- Let friends in your social network know what you are reading about.
- Even in places as blue-leaning as Colorado, Latino support for pro-growth Republicans has been growing.
- Latin America , extending from the deserts of northern Mexico to the icy wilds of Tierra del Fuego in Chile and Argentina , encompasses many diverse countries and peoples.
- Within the Latino community itself in the United States, there is some variation in how it is defined or used.
- American Spanish, probably short for latinoamericano Latin American.
- Even though both terms are used interchangeably, there is a difference between Hispanic and Latino.
The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably. People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. The predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies widely in different locations across the country. Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. After Native Americans , Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States.
Many have Native American ancestry. Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico from its independence in until the end of the Mexican—American War in A study published in in the American Journal of Human Genetics , based on 23andMe data from 8, self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States carried a mean of The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest , especially those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry.
The terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity ; people of this group may be of any race [ citation needed ] and of any linguistic background. According to the Smithsonian Institution , the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians , as well as those of Spanish-language origin.
Others are wholly or predominantly of European ancestry or of Amerindian ancestry. Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well.
The difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some. The U. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas.
This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico. One definition of Latino is "a Latin male in the United States". Under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino. This definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U.
A later definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term "latinoamericano" , the Spanish word for Latin American, or someone who comes from Latin America. A Brazilian American is also a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America.
However, an immigrant from Spain would be classified as European or White by American standards but not Latino by this definition. While the U. Census Bureau's definition of "Hispanic" is limited to Spanish-speaking Latin America, other government agencies have slightly different definitions of the term.
Unlike the Census Bureau's definition, this clearly includes people with origins in Portuguese-speaking countries. Preference of use between the terms among Hispanics and Latinos in the United States often depends on where users of the respective terms reside. In Spanish, latino plural latinos and latina plural latinas are used generally as adjective. Their employment as noun, however, was, until the s, restricted to the ancient Italic peoples of the Italian peninsula, and by extension, all peoples who adopted vulgar Latin as their mother tongue i.
In fact, as the US ethnic designation Latino is abstracted from the longer form latinoamericano ,  the element latino- is actually an indeclinable, compositional form in -o i.
The feminine variant Latina was coined retroactively in the US in the late s, as the shortened US term Latino became confused with the Spanish adjective latino , which does have a feminine correspondence latina. The US usage of Latino has been only recently adopted in the Spanish language. The term Latinx and its more restricted term Chicanx began to appear in user search queries in October , according to Google Trends.
The earliest written examples are from , if not from late It seems that U. Spanish explorers were pioneers in the territory of the present-day United States. They turned back to the interior, reaching their destination of Mexico City. In , Hernando de Soto undertook an extensive exploration of the present United States. In all, Spaniards probed half of today's lower 48 states before the first English colonization effort in at Roanoke Island off the East Coast.
In , the Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at St. Augustine, Florida.
As late as , at the end of the American Revolutionary War a conflict in which Spain aided and fought alongside the rebels , Spain held claim to roughly half the territory of today's continental United States.
From to , the United States through treaties, purchase, diplomacy, and the Mexican—American War increased its area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, acquiring its three currently most populous states— California , Texas and Florida.
During the 20th and 21st centuries, Hispanic and Latino immigration to the United States increased markedly following changes to the immigration law in Hispanic and Latino contributions in the historical past and present of the United States are addressed in more detail below See Notables and their contributions.
States and territories with the highest proportion of Hispanics [ citation needed ]. The Northeast region is dominated by Puerto Ricans and Dominican Americans , having the highest concentrations of both in the country. Florida is dominated by Cuban Americans and Puerto Ricans. Another 9. The remainder were of other Central American or of South American origin, or of origin directly from Spain.
There are few immigrants directly from Spain, since Spaniards have historically emigrated to Latin America rather than English-speaking countries.
Because of this, most Hispanics who identify themselves as Spaniard or Spanish also identify with Latin American national origin. In the Census estimate approximately 1. In northern New Mexico and southern Colorado , there is a large portion of Hispanics who trace their ancestry to Spanish settlers of the late 16th century through the 17th century.
People from this background often self-identify as " Hispanos ", "Spanish" or "Hispanic". Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Amerindians, creating a Mestizo population. Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos are distinct cultures with their own cuisines, dialects and musical traditions. The term "Chicano" became popular amongst Mexican Americans in the s during the Chicano nationalism and Chicano Movement , and is today seen as an ethnic and cultural identity by some.
There are close to two million Nuyoricans in the United States. Hispanic or Latino origin is independent of race and is termed "ethnicity" by the United States Census Bureau. Mestizo is not a racial category in the U. Census , but signifies someone who has both European and American Indian Ancestry. Almost one third of the multi-race respondents were Hispanics.
The few hundred thousand Asian Hispanics are of various backgrounds, among which include Filipino mestizos with Spanish background, Asians of Latin American background examples including Chinese Cubans and Japanese Peruvians , and those of recent mixed Asian and Hispanic background. Note that Filipinos are generally not counted as Hispanic, despite the fact that the Spanish colonized the Philippines and many Filipinos have Spanish names.
Hispanic and Latinos are racially diverse, although different "races" are usually the majority of each Hispanic group. In the Dominican Republic the population are largely made up of people with inter-mixed ancestries, in which there are even levels of African and European ancestry, with smaller numbers of Whites and Blacks as well.
In Puerto Rico, people with European ancestry are the majority. There are also populations of predominantly of African descent as well as populations of American Indian descent as well as those with intermixed ancestries. Cubans are mostly of White Latin American ancestry, however there are also populations of Blacks and multi-racials as well.
Official sources report the racial makeup of these Hispanic subgroups as follows, Brazil,  Uruguay,  Puerto Rico,  Cuba,  and Chile,  having the highest percentage of Hispanics self-identifying as white in their respective countries. The phenomenon of biracial people who are predominantly of European descent identifying as white is not limited to Hispanics or Spanish speakers but is also common among English speakers as well: researchers found that most White Americans with less than 28 percent African-American ancestry say they are White; above that threshold, people tended to describe themselves as African-American.
As of , one third, or This makes them more than half of the Hispanic population within the United States. With the increasing Hispanic population in the United States, Latinos have had a considerable impact on the K system. S schools.
The state of Latino education shows some promise. First, Hispanic students attending pre-K or kindergarten were more likely to attend full-day programs. However, their academic achievement in early childhood, elementary, and secondary education lag behind other groups. To explain these disparities, some scholars have suggested there is a Latino "Education Crisis" due to failed school and social policies.
Illegal Immigrants have not always had access to compulsory education in the United States. However, due to the landmark Supreme Court case Plyler v. Doe in , immigrants are allowed access to K education. This significantly impacted all immigrant groups, including Latinos. However, their academic achievement is dependent upon several factors including, but not limited to time of arrival and schooling in country of origin.
For instance, first- and second- generation Latinos outperform their later generational counterparts. Hispanic and Latinos make up the second or third largest ethnic group in Ivy League universities, considered to be the most prestigious in the United States. Hispanic and Latino enrollment at Ivy League universities has gradually increased over the years.
While Hispanics study in colleges and universities throughout the country, some choose to attend federally-designated Hispanic-serving institutions , institutions that are accredited, degree-granting, public or private nonprofit institutions of higher education with 25 percent or more total undergraduate Hispanic full-time equivalent FTE student enrollment.
There are over institutions of higher education that have been designated as an HSI. Hispanic and Latino Americans are the longest-living Americans, according to official data. Their life expectancy is more than two years longer than for non-Hispanic whites and almost eight years longer than for African Americans.
Furthermore, working Hispanics are less likely to receive health insurance from their employer in comparison to non-White Hispanics. Insurance from employers is most common source for workers. According to studies, Hispanics are most likely to have jobs in agriculture, domestic services, retail trade in comparison to Non-Hispanic whites and their administrative, and executive positions.
Although insurance companies such as Medicare have enrolled many minority groups in order for them to receive medical care, the gap between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites is noticeable. Those who do not receive health insurance is because either they do not qualify, the premiums are too expensive and the primarily because their employers do not offer health insurance.
Limited access to services adds another layer of trauma and misfortune to immigrants living in the United States and more specifically to Mexican women who have the highest uninsured rate Additionally, the Affordable Care act was a health legislation passed in order to help Mexican immigrant women gain access to quality health care services when they are without employer sponsored or private health insurance.
Ownership was increasingly concentrated in the s and s. There was a Hispanic presence on the continent for more than years before 13 colonies on the eastern coast declared their independence from England In California, the state with the largest Latino population, the number of hate crimes against Latinos almost doubled. Herrera-Sobek, Maria. Just checking in with it.
Where are the latinos. RELATED CONTENT
Census and the OMB use the terms interchangeably, where both terms are synonyms. The AP Stylebook ' s recommended usage of Latino in Latin America includes not only persons of Spanish-speaking ancestry, but also more generally includes persons "from — or whose ancestors were from — Latin America, including Brazilians". However, in the recent past, the term Latinos was also applied to people from the Caribbean region,  but those from former French, Dutch and British colonies are excluded.
The modern usage of latino comes from a shortening of the term Latin America Spanish : America Latina , or latinoamerica.
By the late s, the term was being used in local California newspapers such as El Clamor Publico by californios writing about America latina and latinoamerica , and identifying themselves as latinos as the abbreviated term for their "hemispheric membership in la raza latina ". An earlier theory held that the term came about in the 16th century, given by geographers to Spain and Portugal's colonies in the New World, referring to the Latin-based, Romance languages imposed on the indigenous population by the colonizers.
Whereas Latino designates someone with roots in Latin America, the term Hispanic in contrast is a demonym that includes Spaniards and other speakers of the Spanish language. The term Latino was officially adopted in by the United States Government in the ethnonym Hispanic or Latino , which replaced the single term Hispanic : "Because regional usage of the terms differs — Hispanic is commonly used in the eastern portion of the United States, whereas Latino is commonly used in the western portion.
The Census Bureau attempted to identify all Hispanics by use of the following criteria in sampled sets: . While Brazilian Americans are not included with Hispanics and Latinos in the government's census population reports, any Brazilian American can report as being Hispanic or Latino since Hispanic or Latino origin is, like race or ethnicity, a matter of self-identification.
Other federal and local government agencies and non-profit organizations include Brazilians and Portuguese in their definition of Hispanic. Each year since the International Latino Book Award is conferred to the best achievements in Spanish or Portuguese literature at BookExpo America , the largest publishing trade show in the United States. The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, which proclaims itself the champion of Hispanic success in higher education, has member institutions in the U.
Some authorities of American English maintain a distinction between the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino":. Though often used interchangeably in American English, Hispanic and Latino are not identical terms, and in certain contexts the choice between them can be significant.
Hispanic , from the Latin word for "Spain," has the broader reference, potentially encompassing all Spanish-speaking peoples in both hemispheres and emphasizing the common denominator of language among communities that sometimes have little else in common.
Latino —which in Spanish means "Latin" but which as an English word is probably a shortening of the Spanish word latinoamericano —refers more exclusively to persons or communities of Latin American origin. Of the two, only Hispanic can be used in referring to Spain and its history and culture; a native of Spain residing in the United States is a Hispanic , not a Latino , and one cannot substitute Latino in the phrase the Hispanic influence on native Mexican cultures without garbling the meaning.
In practice, however, this distinction is of little significance when referring to residents of the United States, most of whom are of Latin American origin and can theoretically be called by either word. The Stylebook limits the term "Hispanic" to persons "from — or whose ancestors were from — a Spanish-speaking land or culture".
It provides a more expansive definition, however, of the term "Latino". The Stylebook definition of Latino includes not only persons of Spanish-speaking ancestry, but also more generally includes persons "from — or whose ancestors were from —.
Latin America". The Stylebook specifically lists "Brazilian" as an example of a group which can be considered Latino. The use of the term Latino , despite its increasing popularity, is still highly debated among those who are called by the name.
Census Bureau  and its subsequent widespread use, there have been several controversies and disagreements, especially in the United States and, to a lesser extent, in Mexico and other Spanish-speaking countries. Since it is an arbitrary generic term, many Latin American scholars, journalists, and indigenous rights organisations have objected to the mass media use of the word "Latino", pointing out that such ethnonyms are optional and should be used only to describe people involved in the practices, ideologies, and identity politics of their supporters.
When and why the Latino identity came about is a more involved story. Essentially, politicians, the media, and marketers find it convenient to deal with the different U. Spanish-speaking people under one umbrella. However, many people with Spanish surnames contest the term Latino. They claim it is misleading because no Latino or Hispanic nationality exists since no Latino state exists, so generalizing the term Latino slights the various national identities included under the umbrella.
The term Latino is a loan word borrowed from Spanish , and ultimately has its roots in the Latin language used in Ancient Rome. Attempts have been made to introduce gender neutral language into Spanish by changing the ending of Latino. Terms like Latinx ,  and Latin are just a few examples of the various ways in which members of the Latino community have tried to be more inclusive of women and gender nonbinary individuals through language.
Its plural is Latinxs. The term was first seen around , predominantly online, among intersectional advocacy groups combining the identity politics of race and gender.
It slowly gained in usage, and came into popular use around , especially in American universities, where its use has since become widespread. Reactions to this neologism have been mixed, with the most criticism coming from native Spanish speakers.
There tends to be a generational and regional divide among supporters and critics of the term, with more support among young people in the United States, and more criticism among older generations, and from those outside the U.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A group of people in the United States with ties to Latin America. This article is about the term Latino. For the people, see Hispanic and Latino Americans. For other uses, see Latino disambiguation.
For other uses, see Latina disambiguation. For the newspaper series, see Latinos newspaper series. National origin groups. Colonial casta system. Political movements. Chicano Movement Hispanic and Latino American politics. Literature Music Religion Studies. Related national groups. Ethnic groups. Main article: Hispanic and Latino Americans. Further information: Hispanic—Latino naming dispute.
Main article: Latinx. But the term was used to justify French intervention in the young republics of Latin America. Retrieved 17 October One of the major distinctions of New Mexican Spanish is its heavy use of colonial vocabulary and verb tenses that make New Mexican Spanish uniquely American amongst Spanish dialects.
Canarian Spanish is the historic Spanish dialect spoken by the descendants of the earliest Spanish colonists beginning in the 18th century in Louisiana.
Spanish spoken elsewhere throughout the country varies, although is generally Mexican Spanish. Most generations of descendants of immigrants after the first generation of Spanish speakers tend to speak the Spanish language with accents of American English of the region in which they grew up.
Hispanics have influenced the way Americans speak with the introduction of many Spanish words into the English language. Amongst younger generations of Hispanics, Spanglish , or a mix of Spanish and English, may be a common way of speaking. Although they are fluent in both languages, speakers will switch between Spanish and English throughout the conversation. Hispanics have also influenced the way English is spoken in the United States. In Miami, for example, the Miami dialect has evolved as the most common form of English spoken and heard in Miami today.
This is a native dialect of English, and was developed amongst second and third generations of Cuban Americans in Miami. Today, it is commonly heard everywhere throughout the city. Gloria Estefan and Enrique Iglesias are examples of people who speak with the Miami dialect. George Lopez and Selena are examples of speakers of Chicano English. Catholic affiliation is much higher among first-generation than it is among second- or third-generation Hispanic or Latino immigrants, who exhibit a fairly high rate of defection to Protestantism.
The United States is home to thousands of Spanish-language media outlets, which range in size from giant commercial and some non-commercial broadcasting networks and major magazines with circulations numbering in the millions, to low-power AM radio stations with listeners numbering in the hundreds. There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting U. Hispanic consumers. Some of the outlets are online versions of their printed counterparts and some online exclusively.
Increased use of Spanish-language media leads to increased levels of group consciousness, according to survey data. The differences in attitudes are due to the diverging goals of Spanish-language and English-language media. The effect of using Spanish-language media serves to promote a sense of group consciousness among Latinos by reinforcing roots in Latin America and the commonalities among Latinos of varying national origin. Spanish language radio is the largest non-English broadcasting media.
The s were boom years. Ownership was increasingly concentrated in the s and s. The industry sponsored the now-defunct trade publication Sponsor from the late s to Latino food, particularly Mexican food, has influenced American cuisine and eating habits. Mexican cuisine has become so mainstream in American culture that many no longer see it as an ethnic food. Across the United States, tortillas and salsa are arguably becoming as common as hamburger buns and ketchup.
Tortilla chips have surpassed potato chips in annual sales, and plantain chips popular in Caribbean cuisines have continued to increase sales. Due to the large Mexican-American population in the Southwestern United States, and its proximity to Mexico , Mexican food there is believed to be some of the best in the United States. Cubans brought Cuban cuisine to Miami , and today, cortaditos , pastelitos de guayaba, and empanadas are common mid-day snacks in the city.
Hispanic and Latino culture places a strong value on family, and is commonly taught to Hispanic children as one of the most important values in life. Statistically, Hispanic families tend to have larger and closer knit families than the American average. Hispanic families tend to prefer to live near other family members. This may mean that three or sometimes four generations may be living in the same household or near each other, although four generations is uncommon in the United States.
The role of grandparents is believed to be very important in the upbringing of children. Hispanics tend to be very group-oriented, and an emphasis is placed on the well-being of the family above the individual. The extended family plays an important part of many Hispanic families, and frequent social, family gatherings are common.
Education is another important priority for Hispanic families. Education is seen as the key towards continued upward mobility in the United States among Hispanic families. A study by the Associated Press showed that Hispanics place a higher emphasis on education than the average American.
Hispanics expect their children to graduate university. Latin American youth today stay at home with their parents longer than before.
This is due to more years spent studying and the difficulty of finding a paid job that meets their aspirations. Hispanic Americans, like immigrant groups before them, are out-marrying at high rates.
Out-marriages comprised The rate was larger for native-born Hispanics, with Of the , new intermarried pairings in , Unlike intermarriage with other racial groups, intermarriage with non-Hispanic Blacks varies by nationality of origin. Puerto Ricans and Dominicans have by far the highest rates of intermarriage with blacks, of all major Hispanic national groups.
As Latino migrants become the norm in the United States, the effects of this migration on the identity of these migrants and their kin becomes most evident in the younger generations. Crossing the borders changes the identities of both the youth and their families.
Often "one must pay special attention to the role expressive culture plays as both entertainment and as a site in which identity is played out, empowered, and reformed" because it is "sometimes in opposition to dominant norms and practices and sometimes in conjunction with them. The term agringados is a term for immigrants who have gone to America and allowed themselves to be Americanized, thus losing their Latino identity.
Another way in which identity is compromised is shown through youth. Families who bring their young children into the United States allow them to be more exposed and vulnerable to adopting American identity. This becomes a problem for the parents because they struggle to understand their children and how to teach them, having grown up in their original country.
Along with feeling that they are neither from the country of their ethnic background nor the United States, a new identity within the United States is formed called latinidad.
Underway is "the intermeshing of different Latino subpopulations has laid the foundations for the emergence and ongoing evolution of a strong sense of latinidad" which establishes a "sense of cultural affinity and identity deeply rooted in what many Latinos perceive to be a shared historical, spiritual, aesthetic and linguistic heritage, and a growing sense of cultural affinity and solidarity in the social context of the United States.
Migration to the United States can change identity for Latino youth in various way, including how they carry their gendered identities. In traditional Latino households, women and young girls are homebodies or muchachas de la casa "girls of the house" , showing that they abide "by the cultural norms The unassimilated community views these adapting women as being de la calle "of [or from] the street" , transgressive and sexually promiscuous.
Some Latino families in the United States "deal with young women's failure to adhere to these culturally prescribed norms of proper gendered behavior in a variety of ways, including sending them to live in With the Catholic Church remaining a large influence on the Latino culture, the subject of promiscuity and sexuality is often considered taboo.
It is taught in many Latino cultures that best way to remain pure of sin and not become pregnant is to remain celibate and heterosexual. All are to be straight and women are to be virgins. A woman must carry herself like a Madonna in order to receive respect and keep the family's honor.
However, despite being told that they should essentially suppress any natural feeling of sexual curiosity, through the globalization of encouraging sexual liberation, many young Latina women take their sexuality into their own hands and do not listen to the Madonna ideal. Despite this oppressive nature, "women are neither passive nor one-dimensional individuals who automatically adapt to these culturally and socially defined moral prescriptions shaping their sex lives in some way" but instead "sophisticated, multidimensional, and active social agents who react to these prescriptions in multiform and complicated ways".
Latino youth are also taking control of their sexuality through migration, globalization, and tourism in places like Acapulco , Cancun , Vallarta , Mazatlan and Veracruz , all cities in Mexico.
These cities are becoming popularized by gay youth, both Mexican and American, and have become somewhat of a safe haven for homosexual people as well as those whom have been labeled gay, not for their sexual preferences but because of the way that their gender is perceived by others. Due to the persecution for presenting as homosexual that is faced in Mexico along with the difficulty to immigrate north of the border, "many queer Mexican men and women migrating to urban areas within Mexico has proved to be a better alternative.
As a result of the rapid growth of the Hispanic population, there has been some tension with other minority populations,  especially the African American population, as Hispanics have increasingly moved into once exclusively Black areas. Hispanics and Latinos differ on their political views depending on their location and background. Cuban Americans and Colombian Americans tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans.
Texas Latinos were split nearly evenly, favoring Kerry 50—49 over their favorite son candidate, and Florida Latinos who are mostly Cuban American backed Bush, by a 54—45 margin.
In the midterm election , however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War , the heated debate concerning illegal Hispanic immigration , and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Hispanics and Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years. Exit polls showed the group voting for Democrats by a lopsided 69—30 margin, with Florida Latinos for the first time split evenly.
The runoff election in Texas' 23rd congressional district was seen as a bellwether of Latino politics. Democrat Ciro Rodriguez 's unexpected and unexpectedly decisive defeat of Republican incumbent Henry Bonilla was seen as proof of a leftward lurch among Latino voters; majority-Latino counties overwhelmingly backed Rodriguez, and majority European-American counties overwhelmingly backed Bonilla.
In the Presidential election 's Democratic primary Hispanics and Latinos participated in larger numbers than before, with Hillary Clinton receiving most of the group's support.
Clinton, even among the younger demographic. In other groups, younger voters went overwhelmingly for Obama. On June 26, , Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez , a millennial , won the Democratic primary in New York's 14th congressional district covering parts of The Bronx and Queens in New York City , defeating the incumbent, Democratic Caucus Chair Joe Crowley , in what has been described as the biggest upset victory in the midterm-election season.
Hispanic and Latino Americans have made distinguished contributions to the United States in all major fields, such as politics , the military , music , film , literature , sports , business and finance , and science. It's a distinction given to Latino performers actors, film and television directors, and musicians by the National Council of La Raza. Examples of artists include Celia Cruz , who was a Cuban-American singer and the most popular Latin artist of the 20th century, gaining twenty-three gold albums during her career.
Bill Clinton awarded her the National Medal of Arts in Among the Hispanic American musicians who were pioneers in the early stages of rock and roll were Ritchie Valens , who scored several hits, most notably " La Bamba " and Herman Santiago , who wrote the lyrics to the iconic rock and roll song " Why Do Fools Fall in Love ". Miguel del Aguila wrote works and has three Latin Grammy nominations. In , Billboard magazine introduced the Hot Latin Songs chart which ranks the best-performing songs on Spanish-language radio stations in the United States.
In , Univision established the Lo Nuestro Awards which became the first award ceremony to recognize the most talented performers of Spanish-language music and was considered to be the "Hispanic Grammys ". Hispanics and Latinos have also contributed some prominent actors and others to the film industry. Some of the Hispanic or Latino actors who achieved notable success in U. Kenny Ortega is an Emmy Award -winning producer, director, and choreographer who has choreographed many major television events such as Super Bowl XXX , the 72nd Academy Awards , and Michael Jackson 's memorial service.
Hispanics and Latinos are underrepresented in U. These programs are distributed to various public television stations throughout the United States. The total number of Hispanic-owned businesses in was 1. There are several Hispanics on the Forbes list of richest Americans. He built his career developing and operating low-income multifamily apartments across Miami.
Unanue , the son of the company's founders. Samuel A. Ramirez Sr. She is the highest-profile Latina in network television and one of the few executives who has the power to approve the airing or renewal of series. As of , there were more than five thousand elected officeholders in the United States who were of Latino origin. As of January , the U. Numerous Hispanics and Latinos hold elective and appointed office in state and local government throughout the United States.
Since ,  when Ronald Reagan appointed Lauro Cavazos the Secretary of Education , the first Hispanic United States Cabinet member, Hispanic Americans have had an increasing presence in presidential administrations. They are divided into the two major American political parties: The Congressional Hispanic Caucus is composed entirely of Democratic representatives, whereas the Congressional Hispanic Conference is composed entirely of Republican representatives.
Hispanics and Latinos have participated in the military of the United States and in every major military conflict from the American Revolution onward. Up to now, 43 Hispanics and Latinos have been awarded the nation's highest military distinction, the Medal of Honor also known as the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Barkley , Lucian Adams , Rudolph B. Gonzales , Silvestre S. Herrera , Jose M. Lopez , Joe P. Martinez , Manuel Perez Jr. Rodriguez , Alejandro R. Ruiz , Jose F.
Valdez , Ysmael R. Rodriguez , John P. Baca , Roy P. Benavidez , Emilio A. De La Garza , Ralph E. Rascon , Louis R. Mario J. Molina won the Nobel Prize in chemistry and currently works in the chemistry department at the University of California, San Diego. Victor Manuel Blanco is an astronomer who in discovered "Blanco 1", a galactic cluster. Duarte is a laser physicist and author; he received the Engineering Excellence Award from the prestigious Optical Society of America for the invention of the N-slit laser interferometer.
Physicist Albert Baez made important contributions to the early development of X-ray microscopes and later X-ray telescopes. His nephew John Carlos Baez is also a noted mathematical physicist. Francisco J. Ayala is a biologist and philosopher, former president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science , and has been awarded the National Medal of Science and the Templeton Prize.
Sloan Foundation Fellow. Fernando E. Sarah Stewart , a Mexican-American Microbiologist, is credited with the discovery of the Polyomavirus and successfully demonstrating that cancer causing viruses could be transmitted from animal to animal.
Mexican-American psychiatrist Dr. Nora Volkow , whose brain imaging studies helped characterize the mechanisms of drug addiction, is the current director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Olga D. Mercedes Reaves , research engineer and scientist who is responsible for the design of a viable full-scale solar sail and the development and testing of a scale model solar sail at NASA Langley Research Center. There have been far fewer football and basketball players, let alone star players, but Tom Flores was the first Hispanic head coach and the first Hispanic quarterback in American professional football, and won Super Bowls as a player, as assistant coach and as head coach for the Oakland Raiders.
Orlando Antigua became in the first Hispanic and the first non-black in 52 years to play for the Harlem Globetrotters. Hispanics are present in all major American sports and leagues, but have particularly influenced the growth in popularity of soccer in the United States. Soccer is the most popular sport across Latin America and Spain , and Hispanics brought the heritage of soccer playing to the United States. Boxing 's first Hispanic American world champion was Solly Smith.
In countries where the majority of the population is of immigrant descent, such as the United States, opposition to immigration sometimes takes the form of nativism.
In California, the state with the largest Latino population, the number of hate crimes against Latinos almost doubled.
For the year , the FBI reported that of the 6, hate crimes committed in the United States were anti-Hispanic comprising 7. This compares to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ethnic group. For other uses, see Latino disambiguation. Not to be confused with Latin Americans or the inhabitants of Hispanic America.
National origin groups. Colonial casta system. Political movements. Chicano Movement Hispanic and Latino American politics. Literature Music Religion Studies.
Related national groups. Ethnic groups. This section needs expansion with: more about the 19th and 20th centuries. You can help by adding to it. January Main article: History of Hispanic and Latino Americans. See also: Hispanic Heritage Sites U. National Park Service. Main article: Demographics of Hispanic and Latino Americans.
See also: Hispanic-serving institution. Main articles: American culture and Hispanic culture. See also: List of English words of Spanish origin. Main article: Hispanic and Latino American politics. This section needs expansion. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. August Main article: Latin music in the United States.
See also: Hispanic Main article: Hispanics in the American Civil War. Main article: List of Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients. See also: Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers. Main articles: Hispanophobia and Anti-Mexican sentiment. Hispanic and Latino Americans portal. Senate , not elected. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 5 March NBC Latino.
Census Bureau. March Archived from the original PDF on April 29, Retrieved January 9, Garcia Temple University Press. Fisher Johns Hopkins University Press. Holden; Rina Villars Contemporary Latin America: to the Present.
Retrieved Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 14 October The page indicates the number of American people or residents in United States identifying as of different national origins. Federal Register Notice October 30, ". Archived from the original on January 17, Hispanic or Latino origin by specific origin". Archived from the original on Hispanic or Latino By Race ". Hispanic or Latino origin by race". Pew Hispanic Center.
City — Infoplease. Encyclopedia Americana Corp. University of Houston. New Mexico State University. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 3, Durand, J. Most Hispanics say no". Pew Research.
Pew Research Center. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on 21 June Note: It defines "Hispanic" as meaning those with Spanish-speaking roots in the Americas and Spain, and "Latino" as meaning those from both Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking cultures in Latin America. Federal Register Notice". Office of Management and Budget. The White House. October 30, Retrieved 16 January The Guardian.
Newsroom Archived from the original on April 18, Archived from the original on January 9, Race and Hispanic origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic may be of any race. People in each race group may be either Hispanic or not Hispanic. Population Division. Archived from the original on September 16, Archived from the original Excel on Metropolitan Areas, ".
Pew Research Center: Hispanic Trends. September 6, New Mexico CultureNet. It's a legacy Alexis feels strongly connected to—and proud of. Archived from the original on September 2, PLoS Genetics. Retrieved January 10, The New York Times: White? The Condition of Latinos in Education: Factbook.
Gandara; Frances Contreras Harvard University Press. Retrieved 10 January Teachers College Record. American Journal of Education. Children and Schools. Subtractive Schooling: U. SUNY Press. Retrieved 16 January — via Google Books. Social Forces. University of Texas at El Paso. Minority Ratios". Archived from the original on March 18, Retrieved on April 3, May 13, Archived from the original PDF on November 2, Archived from the original PDF on March 4, The University of Texas System.
May 14, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. February 24, United States life tables by Hispanic origin. National Center for Health Statistics.
Vital Health Stat 2 Page 1. Collins; Munira Z. Gunja; Michelle M. Doty; Sophie Beutel August 18, Commonwealth Fund. The health status of latino immigrant women in the United States and future health policy implication of the affordable care act.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine, 2 5 , Immigration policy, practices and procedures: the impact on the mental health of Mexican and central American youth and families. Depression among Mexican men on the migration frontier: the role of family separation and other structural and situational stressors. American Psychologist, A Companion to Diaspora and Transnationalism. Hispanic Origin Groups". Retrieved 15 September Shin; Rosalind Bruno October Rodriguez, CNN 20 September Language Use".
Smithsonian Magazine. There was a Hispanic presence on the continent for more than years before 13 colonies on the eastern coast declared their independence from England By , when the British established their first successful settlement, at Jamestown, Virginia, writes historian Bernard Bailyn, "Spain's American dominion extended nearly 8, miles, from Southern California to the Straits of Magellan City of St.
Founded in , St. Augustine is the oldest continuously occupied settlement of European origin in the United States. Forty-two years before the English colonized Jamestown and fifty-five years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, the Spanish established at St. Augustine this nation's first enduring settlement.
Augustine in Florida". America's Library. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on May 24, Later the settlement would be called St. Augustine, ". Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University. Language spoken at home by ability to speak English for the population 5 years and over Hispanic or Latino ".
The other Of these, 3. These The Huffington Post. Sea to Shining Sea. American Varieties. Book - PBS". The Orlando Sentinel. Hispanics Choose Churches Outside Catholicism". Retrieved 30 August The Economist. Retrieved 28 March Gaston Espinosa Lanham, Md.
The Washingtion Times. Archived from the original on 1 March Bradford, Reed W. Larson, and Tharakad Subramanium Saraswathi, eds. Cambridge University Press, Lee; Barry Edmonston June Population Reference Bureau Population Bulletin.
Archived from the original PDF on March 3, Archived from the original PDF on January 31, We are All Multiculturalists Now. Orlando Sentinel. Being Latino Online Magazine.
Archived from the original on November 2, Szot 26 February Fox News Latino. Black and Multiracial Politics in America. Between Melting Pot and Mosaic. Gene Expression. The New Observer. Archived from the original on 2 March
Hispanics in the US Fast Facts - CNN
All rights reserved. Ismael Fernandez grew up in Wilder, Idaho, a town of 1, souls surrounded by tall hop plants and stubby alfalfa fields. He lived with his grandparents in a home built on land where his grandfather, a Vietnam War veteran, once picked beets and onions. When Fernandez was 19, he was elected to the city council. On his first day in office, in , he stepped up to the short dais in Wilder City Hall and sat alongside the four other council members. The story soon went national.
For the first time ever in Idaho—a state where non-Hispanic whites make up 82 percent of the population—voters had elected an all-Latino city council. Born in to farmworkers with roots in Mexico, Fernandez grew up hearing people describe him as Latino. The term spread in the last decades of the 20th century as a means of grouping together ethnically diverse peoples of Hispanic heritage: immigrants from Cuba and Guatemala, U.
Mainly Latino, mainly of Mexican descent. Wilder, where Latinos now make up three-quarters of the population, has become an unlikely symbol of the rising influence of Latinos nationwide. Every day the rest of the United States becomes a little more like Wilder. Census Bureau. Such critics, including President Donald Trump, often have cast Latinos as violent gang members, job stealers uninterested in learning English, and undocumented immigrants who come to the United States and have so-called anchor babies, children who are U.
Resentment about immigration—most of the estimated 11 million undocumented immigrants in the U. A similar need for laborers is reshaping the demographics and culture of rural areas nationwide.
And big cities such as Miami, New York, Houston, Chicago, and Los Angeles are now home to millions of Latinos who reflect a broad economic spectrum and, as in Wilder, are taking on leadership roles in their communities. I grew up as the son of Guatemalan immigrants in Los Angeles, which now has a Latino plurality. Like people in Wilder, L. They make comfort food from beans and corn masa; they go to church to praise Dios, and they call their daughters mija a portmanteau of mi hija, my daughter.
Latinos in Los Angeles vote too, electing pro-immigrant representatives and helping make California a state that once elected Ronald Reagan governor among the most pro-Democrat of the 50 states. The mayor of Los Angeles and key leaders in the state legislature are of Latin American descent. The city council in Wilder meets in a former bank that serves as city hall.
Members say they rarely, if ever, discuss questions of cultural identity. At the same time, the mayor is proud of her heritage. According to the U. Latinos officially became the largest U. Since then their Latinidad has continued to thrive in urban and rural areas. This U. All people born in Puerto Rico are U. Sources: Pew Research center; U. Since then their Latinidad has continued. Like other places in the United States, western Idaho is a cultural crossroads. Spanish-surnamed people first came from Mexico and South Texas to live in Wilder in large numbers during the second half of the 20th century.
They were following annual migrant-worker routes, and each year most would leave once the snow began to fall. When a few decided to stay, the local Latino community was born.
Bravo works full-time for a local farmer during the week. We suffered, we battled. Among the major ethnic or racial identities in the United States—white, black, Asian, Native American—Latino is the most amorphous. Latino people can be African, Mesoamerican, Asian, or white. They are evangelical, Roman Catholic, and Jewish.
More than likely this story involves the journey a migrant made in search of work and opportunity. In Los Angeles, the great sprawling metropolis centered on what was once an outpost of the Spanish Empire, Latino people still think of labor, migration, hardship, and resilience as the qualities that define them and tie them together. We slowly rose into the middle class, moving eastward every few years—from crowded East Hollywood to newer, roomier suburbs such as Whittier.
Once confined to barrios in East L. At the southern end of Los Angeles, in the oil-refinery and port community of Wilmington, I met the family of Luz Gomez. Three languages are spoken at the Gomez home: English, Spanish, and Zapotec.
Luz, 17, is a U. Her father, Fidel, came to the U. Many are lifelong Americans like me who grew up speaking English. In Whittier fifth-grade teacher Yolanda Garcia noticed her students did better when their lessons had Latino themes. Learning about their culture and history made them feel smarter. Later, with the blessing of Whittier officials, Garcia launched a Day of the Dead festival in a nearby park.
The festival now takes up a dozen city blocks on an October weekend. Whittier has become a mecca of the Latino middle class, a transformation few locals could have imagined a generation ago. I grew up in South Whittier—an unincorporated, down-market community nearby—and knew Whittier as a place where white people lived.
Richard Nixon went to high school there. These days some very affluent Latino families live in Whittier, including Richard and Rebecca Zapanta. Richard grew up in the barrios of East Los Angeles in the s and s, but he had no real, living connection to Mexico. After he became a successful surgeon, he traveled to the land of his ancestors again and again. His Spanish improved, a skill that was useful when he met Mexican artists. The Zapanta home is also filled with photographs of Latino politicians they know, many of whom have risen to national prominence.
In the Latino communities of Southern California, it is the best of times, and the most difficult. I live in a hillside home with beautiful views near the Los Angeles River, where the real estate boom has pushed the value of some properties past one million dollars.
A short downhill walk from my home, undocumented immigrants live and work. Her mother told Fatima, then 13, to record the arrest on her cell phone. Romulo was released from detention six months later. Romulo has lived in the U. But the ever stricter enforcement of immigration laws has changed the feel of daily life in many Latino communities. The impact is seen most dramatically along the 1,mile U. The slow river that separates Mexico from the United States is a mirror of calm water less than yards wide when it passes the quiet border town of El Cenizo, Texas—population 3, El Cenizo is 99 percent Latino.
People of Mexican descent have long lived here and crossed easily back and forth between the two countries. In the city passed a sanctuary law protecting undocumented immigrants. The local school is named for two heroes, one U. The town of 3, sits along the Rio Grande, across from Mexico. El Cenizo gets its name from a sagebrush that grows along the Rio Grande Valley.
People here used to work on the onion and melon farms nearby, but those crops were abandoned years ago, forcing many to travel hundreds of miles in search of jobs. And yet many residents remain proud to call the mostly Spanish-speaking town home. In recent years tougher enforcement has made immigrant smugglers a more dangerous, desperate breed. An increased U. Border Patrol presence also has frightened many in El Cenizo: Mayor Raul Reyes estimates one in five residents may be undocumented.
In Reyes filed suit to stop enforcement of a new Texas law that would force local police to cooperate with immigration authorities. Reyes, a registered Democrat, announced he would be willing to take the fight all the way to the U.
Supreme Court. Reyes first ran for office in El Cenizo at age 19—just like Ismael Fernandez, the young city councilman in Wilder, Idaho, except Fernandez ran as a Republican. Growing up in rural Idaho, Fernandez once told his grandmother that he might be the first Latino president. He often engaged in political debates with his more liberal older sister, Mariza.
He studied practical things such as sewer and water systems. A state legislator appointed him her alternate; he was empowered to cast votes when she was absent from the Capitol in nearby Boise. It was a great honor for a year-old, and more seemed sure to follow. But just days after the appointment, on January 27, , Ismael Fernandez died in a car accident outside Wilder. His sister and grandmother chose a small obelisk as his grave marker—it reminded them of the Washington Monument.
Young Ismael had been a history buff who put a framed copy of the U. Constitution on his bedroom wall. Today that obelisk stands as a monument to a local hero of the Latino community: a young man who went to city hall to make his hometown a better place to live and who believed a Latino family with roots in Mexico could leave a permanent mark on the United States of America. Read Caption. Photographs by Karla Gachet and Ivan Kashinsky.
This story appears in the July issue of National Geographic magazine.