Unknown American. Download the image. Close share via email share via facebook share via twitter. Signed, Marks, Inscriptions. Inscriptions Inscribed, on obverse, around top of medal: Inaguration March 4, Inscribed, on reverse, below image of eagle, between image of scrolls, and above image of olive branch: Woodrow Wilson President Thomas Riley Marshall Vice President.
Uncle Dick and Aunt Geneva stayed with us a few times here in Clovis - he was a great story teller - and when I would ask him for more specific details about the Fountain killing and other sensitive things, he would say: 'Let's let a few more of these old buzzards die, then I'll fill you in. March 29, The William riley marshall ar House. This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 25 October Rick Miller's research.
Purdue university siver star twins. Alvy's Site
Indiana was an important swing stateand Wilson hoped that Marshall's popularity would help him carry it in rilry general election. The latter book was completed in May and subsequent historians have noted it as unusual, even for its time, for not disclosing any secrets or attacking any of Marshall's enemies. Although he had stopped drinking, his past alcoholism was later raised by opponents during his gubernatorial election campaign. Marshall's wit is best remembered for a phrase he introduced to the American lexicon. In October several men led by Duff Green demanded Wlliam Daniel Marshall provide medical assistance mwrshall the pro-slavery faction,  but he refused, and the men left. Marshall was a reluctant supporter of the war, believing the country to be unprepared William riley marshall ar feared it would be necessary to enact conscription. He made plans to run for a United States Auto lube oil seat after his term ended, but another opportunity presented itself during his last months as governor. Dawes — Charles Curtis — John N. Cox for president and William riley marshall ar D. Views Read Edit View history. National Park Service. Jones Willuam Gorman — Blackburn — C. Arthur E.
He was an officer in the Union Army during the U.
- A prominent lawyer in Indiana , he became an active and well known member of the Democratic Party by stumping across the state for other candidates and organizing party rallies that later helped him win election as the 27th governor of Indiana.
- He was the fifth Governor of Minnesota from January 8, to January 9, and was a member of the Republican party.
William Henry Harrison February 9, — April 4, was an American military officer and politician who served as the ninth president of the United States in He died of typhoid , pneumonia or paratyphoid fever 31 days into his term the shortest tenure , becoming the first president to die in office. His death sparked a brief constitutional crisis regarding succession to the presidency, because the Constitution was unclear as to whether Vice President John Tyler should assume the office of president or merely execute the duties of the vacant office.
Tyler claimed a constitutional mandate to become the new president and took the presidential oath of office, setting an important precedent for an orderly transfer of the presidency and its full powers when the previous president fails to complete the elected term. He was the last president born as a British subject in the Thirteen Colonies before the start of the Revolutionary War in During his early military career, he participated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers , an American military victory that effectively ended the Northwest Indian War.
Later, he led a military force against Tecumseh's Confederacy at the Battle of Tippecanoe in ,  where he earned the nickname "Old Tippecanoe". He was promoted to major general in the Army in the War of , and in led American infantry and cavalry at the Battle of the Thames in Upper Canada. Harrison began his political career in , when he was appointed Secretary of the Northwest Territory , and in he was elected as the territory's delegate in the House of Representatives. Two years later, President John Adams named him governor of the newly established Indiana Territory , a post he held until After the War of , he moved to Ohio where he was elected to represent the state's 1st district in the House in In , the state legislature elected him to the U.
Senate ; his term was truncated by his appointment as Minister Plenipotentiary to Gran Colombia in May Afterward, he returned to private life in Ohio until he was nominated as the Whig Party candidate for president in the election; he was defeated by Democratic vice president Martin Van Buren. Four years later, the party nominated him again with John Tyler as his running mate, and the Whig campaign slogan was " Tippecanoe and Tyler Too ".
They defeated Van Buren in the election, making Harrison the first Whig to win the presidency. However, historian William W. Freehling calls him "the most dominant figure in the evolution of the Northwest territories into the Upper Midwest today".
He was a member of a prominent political family of English descent whose ancestors had been in Virginia since the s   and the last American president born as a British subject.
His father was a Virginia planter who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress — and who signed the Declaration of Independence. His father also served in the Virginia legislature and as the fifth governor of Virginia —84 in the years during and after the American Revolutionary War. Harrison was tutored at home until age 14 when he entered Hampden—Sydney College , a Presbyterian college in Virginia.
He was only 18 and Morris became his guardian; he also discovered that his family's financial situation left him without funds for further schooling, so he abandoned medical school in favor of a military career after being persuaded by Governor Henry Lee III. On August 16, , Harrison was commissioned as an ensign in the Army in the 1st Infantry Regiment within 24 hours of meeting Lee. He was 18 years old at the time. Harrison was promoted to lieutenant after Major General "Mad Anthony" Wayne took command of the western army in following a disastrous defeat under Arthur St.
In , he became Wayne's aide-de-camp and learned how to command an army on the American frontier; he participated in Wayne's decisive victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, , which ended the Northwest Indian War.
Under the terms of the treaty, a coalition of Indians ceded a portion of their lands to the federal government, opening two-thirds of Ohio to settlement. He was serving in the Army at the time and sold his land to his brother.
They then eloped and were married on November 25,  at the North Bend home of Dr. Stephen Wood, treasurer of the Northwest Territory. They honeymooned at Fort Washington , since Harrison was still on military duty.
Judge Symmes confronted him two weeks later at a farewell dinner for General Wayne, sternly demanding to know how he intended to support a family.
Harrison responded, "by my sword, and my own right arm, sir. Harrison also had an additional six children by Dilsia, an enslaved African-American woman he owned.
Among these was a grandmother of Walter Francis White. Harrison began his political career when he resigned from the military on June 1,   and campaigned among his friends and family for a post in the Northwest Territorial government. His close friend Timothy Pickering was serving as Secretary of State, and he helped him to get a recommendation to replace Winthrop Sargent , the outgoing territorial secretary.
President John Adams appointed Harrison to the position in July He also frequently served as acting territorial governor during the absences of Governor Arthur St. Harrison had many friends in the eastern aristocracy and quickly gained a reputation among them as a frontier leader. He ran a successful horse-breeding enterprise that won him acclaim throughout the Northwest Territory. Congress had legislated a territorial policy which led to high land costs, and this became a primary concern for settlers in the Territory; Harrison became their champion to lower those prices.
The Northwest Territory's population reached a sufficient number to have a delegate in Congress in October , and Harrison ran for election. Harrison defeated Arthur St. Clair Jr. Harrison also served on the committee that decided how to divide the Territory into smaller sections, and they recommended splitting it in two.
The eastern section continued to be known as the Northwest Territory and consisted of Ohio and eastern Michigan ; the western section was named the Indiana Territory and consisted of Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, a portion of western Michigan, and the eastern portion of Minnesota. On May 13, , President John Adams appointed Harrison as the governor of the Indiana Territory, based on his ties to the west and seemingly neutral political stances. Harrison was caught unaware and was reluctant to accept the position until he received assurances from the Jeffersonians that he would not be removed from office after they gained power in the upcoming elections.
Harrison began his duties on January 10, at Vincennes , the capital of the Indiana Territory. Harrison was assigned to administer the civilian government of the District of Louisiana in , a part of the Louisiana Territory that included land north of the 33rd parallel.
In October, a civilian government went into effect and Harrison served as the Louisiana district's executive leader. He administered the district's affairs for five weeks until the Louisiana Territory was formally established on July 4, , and Brigadier General James Wilkinson assumed the duties of governor. In , Harrison built a plantation-style home near Vincennes that he named Grouseland , alluding to the birds on the property; the room home was one of the first brick structures in the territory, and it served as a center of social and political life in the territory during his tenure as governor.
Harrison had wide-ranging powers in the new territory, including the authority to appoint territorial officials and to divide the territory into smaller political districts and counties.
One of his primary responsibilities was to obtain title to Indian lands that would allow future settlement and increase the territory's population, which was a requirement for statehood. President Jefferson reappointed Harrison as the Indiana territorial governor on February 8, , and he also granted him the authority to negotiate and conclude treaties with the Indians.
The Treaty of St. Louis with Quashquame required the Sauk and Meskwaki tribes to cede much of western Illinois and parts of Missouri to the federal government. Many of the Sauk greatly resented this treaty and the loss of lands, especially Black Hawk , and this was a primary reason that they sided with the British during the War of Harrison thought that the Treaty of Grouseland appeased some of the Indians, but tensions remained high along the frontier.
The Treaty of Fort Wayne raised new tensions when Harrison purchased more than 2. He rushed the treaty process by offering large subsidies to the tribes and their leaders so that it would be in force before Jefferson left office and the administration changed.
Harrison's pro-slavery position made him unpopular with the Indiana Territory's antislavery advocates, as he made several attempts to introduce slavery into the territory. He was unsuccessful due to the territory's growing anti-slavery movement. At the end of the suspension period, citizens in the territories covered under the ordinance could decide for themselves whether to permit slavery. Harrison claimed that the suspension was necessary to encourage settlement and would make the territory economically viable, but Congress rejected the idea.
The Illinois Territory held elections to the legislature's upper and lower houses for the first time in Lower house members were elected previously, but the territorial governor appointed members to the upper house. Harrison found himself at odds with the legislature after the anti-slavery faction came to power, and the eastern portion of the Indiana Territory grew to include a large anti-slavery population. By , he had moved away and resumed his military career.
Jefferson was the primary author of the Northwest Ordinance, and he had made a secret compact with James Lemen to defeat the pro-slavery movement led by Harrison, even though he was a slaveholder himself. Jefferson did not want slavery to expand into the Northwest Territory, as he believed that the institution should end. He donated money to Lemen to found churches in Illinois and Indiana to stop the pro-slavery movement. In Indiana , the founding of an anti-slavery church led to citizens signing a petition and organizing politically to defeat Harrison's efforts to legalize slavery in the territory.
Jefferson and Lemen were instrumental in defeating Harrison's attempts in and to expand slavery in the territory. An Indian resistance movement had been growing against American expansion through the leadership of Shawnee brothers Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa The Prophet in a conflict that became known as Tecumseh's War.
Tenskwatawa convinced the tribes that they would be protected by the Great Spirit and no harm could befall them if they would rise up against the settlers. He encouraged resistance by telling the tribes to pay white traders only half of what they owed and to give up all the white man's ways, including their clothing, muskets, and especially whiskey.
They were dressed in war paint, and their sudden appearance at first frightened the soldiers at Vincennes. The leaders of the group were escorted to Grouseland, where they met Harrison. Tecumseh insisted that the Fort Wayne Treaty was illegitimate, arguing that one tribe could not sell land without the approval of the other tribes; he asked Harrison to nullify it and warned that Americans should not attempt to settle the lands sold in the treaty.
Tecumseh informed Harrison that he had threatened to kill the chiefs who signed the treaty if they carried out its terms and that his confederation of tribes was growing rapidly. He rejected Tecumseh's claim that all the Indians formed one nation. He said that each tribe could have separate relations with the United States if they chose to. Harrison argued that the Great Spirit would have made all the tribes speak one language if they were to be one nation.
Tecumseh launched an "impassioned rebuttal", in the words of one historian, but Harrison was unable to understand his language.
Many of them began to pull their weapons, representing a substantial threat to Harrison and the town, which held a population of only 1, Harrison drew his sword, and Tecumseh's warriors backed down when the officers presented their firearms in his defense. Before leaving, Tecumseh informed Harrison that he would seek an alliance with the British if the treaty was not nullified. Tecumseh was traveling in when Harrison was authorized by Secretary of War William Eustis to march against the confederation as a show of force.
He led an army north with more than 1, men to intimidate the Shawnee into making peace, but the tribes launched a surprise attack early on November 7 in the Battle of Tippecanoe. Harrison defeated the tribal forces at Prophetstown next to the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers , and he was hailed as a national hero and the battle became famous. However, his troops had greatly outnumbered the attackers, and suffered many more casualties during the battle. When reporting to Secretary Eustis, Harrison informed him that the battle occurred near the Tippecanoe River and that he feared an imminent reprisal attack.
The first dispatch did not make clear which side had won the conflict, and the secretary at first interpreted it as a defeat; the follow-up dispatch clarified the situation. When no second attack came, the Shawnee defeat was more certain. Eustis demanded to know why Harrison had not taken adequate precautions in fortifying his camp against attacks, and Harrison said that he had considered the position strong enough.
Ramsey Gorman Medary. For the rugby player, see Thomas Roger Marshall. Third party and independent candidates. Tompkins — John C. Marshall had his name entered as a candidate for the presidential nomination at the Democratic National Convention. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote.
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Two years later, a sister was born, but she died in infancy. Martha had contracted tuberculosis , which Daniel believed to be the cause of their infant daughter's poor health. While the family was living in Illinois, Daniel Marshall, a supporter of the American Union and a staunch Democrat, took his four-year-old son, Thomas, to the Lincoln and Douglas debate in Freeport in Marshall later recalled that during the rally he sat on the laps of Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln , alternating between the two candidates when they were not speaking, and remembered it as one of his earliest and most cherished memories.
The family moved to Osawatomie, Kansas , in , but the frontier violence caused them to move to Missouri in In October several men led by Duff Green demanded that Daniel Marshall provide medical assistance to the pro-slavery faction,  but he refused, and the men left. When the Marshalls' neighbors warned that Green was planning to return and murder them, the family quickly packed their belongings and escaped by steamboat to Illinois.
The Marshalls remained in Illinois only briefly, before relocating to Indiana, which was even farther from the volatile border region. On settling in Pierceton, Indiana , Marshall began to attend public school. In Fort Wayne, Marshall attended high school, graduating in His father advised him to study medicine or become a minister, but neither interested him; he entered the school without knowing which profession he would take upon graduation.
During college Marshall joined the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, participated in literary and debating societies, and founded a Democratic Club. In he wrote an unfavorable column about a female lecturer at the school, accusing her of "seeking liberties" with the young boys in their boarding house. Harrison had the suit dropped by showing that the charges made by Marshall were probably true.
In Marshall's memoir, he wrote that when he approached Harrison to pay his bill, his lawyer informed him that he would not charge him for the service, but instead gave him a lecture on ethics.
Marshall was elected to Phi Beta Kappa during his final year at college. At that time, the only way to become a lawyer in Indiana was to apprentice under a member of the Indiana bar association. His great-uncle Woodson Marshall began to help him, but the younger Marshall soon moved to Columbia City, Indiana , to live with his parents.
Marshall read law in the Columbia City law office of Walter Olds , a future member of the Indiana Supreme Court , for more than a year and was admitted to the Indiana bar on April 26, Marshall opened a law practice in Columbia City in , taking on many minor cases.
After gaining prominence, he accepted William F. McNagny as a partner in and began taking many criminal defense cases. The two men functioned well as partners. McNagny was better educated in law and worked out their legal arguments.
Marshall, the superior orator, argued the cases before the judge and jury. Their firm became well known in the region after they handled a number of high-profile cases. About the same time, he met and began to court Kate Hooper, and the two became engaged to marry. Kate died of an illness in , one day before they were to be wed. Her death was a major emotional blow to Marshall, leading him to become an alcoholic.
Marshall lived with his parents into his thirties. His father died in the late s and his mother died in , leaving him with the family estate and business. In , while working on a case, Marshall met Lois Kimsey who was working as a clerk in her father's law firm.
Marshall's alcoholism had begun to interfere with his busy life prior to his marriage. He arrived at court hung-over on several occasions and was unable to keep his addiction secret in his small hometown. His wife helped him to overcome his drinking problem and give up liquor after she locked him in their home for two weeks to undergo a treatment regimen.
Although he had stopped drinking, his past alcoholism was later raised by opponents during his gubernatorial election campaign. Marshall remained active in the Democratic party after his defeat and began stumping on behalf of other candidates and helping to organize party rallies across the state. His speeches were noted for their partisanship, but his rhetoric gradually shifted away from a conservative viewpoint in the s as he began to identify himself with the growing progressive movement.
Marshall and his wife were involved in several private organizations. He was active in the Presbyterian Church, taught Sunday school, and served on the county fair board. As he grew wealthy from his law firm he became involved in local charities. He remained a passionate Freemason until his death and served on several Masonic charitable boards. In , Marshall declined his party's nomination to run for Congress. He hinted, however, to state party leaders that he would be interested in running for Indiana governor in the election.
Despite this support, Marshall was a dark horse candidate at the state convention. Taggart swung Ralston's delegates in support of Marshall to oppose L. Ert Slack, a temperance candidate, giving Marshall the votes he needed to win the nomination. Marshall's opponent in the general election was Republican Congressman James E. Watson , and the campaign focused on temperance and prohibition. The law became the central point of debate between the parties and their gubernatorial candidates.
The Democrats proposed that the local-option law be changed so that the decision to ban liquor sales could be made at the city and township level. The Democratic position also helped to retain prohibitionists' support by allowing prohibition to remain enacted in communities where a majority supported it.
Marshall was inaugurated as Governor of Indiana on January 11, Since his party had been out of power for many years, its initial objective was to appoint as many Democrats as possible to patronage positions.
He allowed the party's different factions to have positions and appointed very few of his own choices. He allowed Taggart to manage the process and pick the candidates, but signed off himself on the official appointments. Although his position on patronage kept peace in his party, it prevented him from building a strong political base.
During his term, Marshall focused primarily on advancing the progressive agenda. He successfully advocated the passage of a child labor law and anti-corruption legislation. He supported popular election of U. Senators, and the constitutional amendment to allow it was ratified by the Indiana General Assembly during his term.
Marshall was a strong opponent of Indiana's recently passed eugenics and sterilization laws , and ordered state institutions not to follow them. Rewriting the state constitution became Marshall's central focus as governor, and after the General Assembly refused to call a constitutional convention he began to seek alternative means by which to have a new constitution adopted.
He and Jacob Piatt Dunn , a close friend and civic leader, wrote a new constitution that increased the state's regulatory powers considerably, set minimum wages, and gave constitutional protections to unions. Republicans believed Marshall's constitution was an attempt to win over Debs' supporters, who had a strong presence in Indiana. The Democratic controlled assembly agreed to the request and put the measure on the ballot. His opponents attacked the direct-democracy provisions, claiming they were a violation of the United States Constitution , which required states to operate republican forms of government.
Marshall presented it to the General Assembly in and recommended that they submit it to voters in the election. Republicans opposed the ratification process, and were infuriated that the Democrats were attempting to revise the entire constitution without calling a constitutional convention , as had been called for in the state's two previous constitutions. Marshall appealed, but the Indiana Supreme Court upheld the decision in a judgment which stated that the Constitution of Indiana could not be replaced in total without a constitutional convention, based on the precedent set by Indiana's first two constitutions.
He launched a final appeal to the United States Supreme Court but left office in January while the case was still pending. Later that year, the court declined the appeal, finding that the issue was within the sole jurisdiction of the state courts. Marshall was disappointed with the outcome. Claire have called the process and the document "seriously flawed" and argued that had the constitution been adopted, large parts would probably have been ruled unconstitutional by the federal courts.
The Indiana constitution prevented Marshall from serving a consecutive term as governor. He made plans to run for a United States Senate seat after his term ended, but another opportunity presented itself during his last months as governor.
Although he did not attend the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore , his name was put forward as Indiana's choice for president. Indiana's delegates lobbied to have Marshall named the vice presidential candidate in exchange for supporting Wilson.
Indiana was an important swing state , and Wilson hoped that Marshall's popularity would help him carry it in the general election. He had his delegates support Marshall, giving him the vice presidential nomination. He changed his mind after Wilson assured him that he would be given plenty of responsibilities. The Wilson—Marshall ticket easily won the election because of the division between the Republican Party and the Progressive Party. Marshall was not fond of Wilson, as he disagreed with him on a number of issues.
Before this, presidents used the vice president who serves as president of the Senate as a go-between; Wilson used the opportunity to show that he did not trust Marshall with delicate business. Marshall was not offended by Wilson's lack of interest in his ideas, and considered his primary constitutional duty to be in the Senate.
He viewed the vice presidential office as being in the legislative branch, not the executive. On several occasions, he ordered the Senate gallery cleared. In the debates leading up to World War I , a number of isolationist senators filibustered bills that Wilson considered important. The filibusters lasted for weeks and twice lasted for over three months.
Wilson and the bills' supporters requested that Marshall put a gag-order in place to cut off debate, but he refused on ethical grounds, allowing a number of bills to be defeated in hopes that opposition would eventually end their filibuster.
In response, Marshall led the Senate to adopt a new rule on March 8, , allowing filibusters to be broken by two-thirds of voting Senators. This replaced the previous rule that allowed any senator to prolong debate as long as he desired.
The rule has been modified several times, most prominently that the current rule requires three-fifths of all Senators, not only the ones voting. As Marshall made little news and was viewed as a somewhat comic figure in Washington because of his sense of humor, a number of Democratic party leaders wanted him removed from the reelection ticket.
Calhoun in , and Wilson and Marshall became the first president and vice president team to be re-elected since Monroe and Tompkins in On the evening of July 2, , Eric Muenter , a onetime German professor at Harvard and Cornell universities, who opposed American support of the allied war effort, broke into the U.
Senate and, finding the door to the Senate chamber locked, laid dynamite outside the reception room, which happened to be next to Marshall's office door. Although the bomb was set with a timer, it exploded prematurely just before midnight, while no one was in the office.
Muenter may not have been specifically targeting the vice president. Morgan , demanding that he stop the sale of weapons to the Allies. Morgan told the man he was in no position to comply with his demand; Muenter shot him twice non-fatally and escaped.
I threw them all into the waste basket. Marshall was a reluctant supporter of the war, believing the country to be unprepared and feared it would be necessary to enact conscription. Shortly after the first troops began to assemble for transport to Europe, Wilson and Marshall hosted a delegation from the United Kingdom in which Marshall became privy to the primary war strategy.
In most instances he received news of the war through the newspapers. Wilson sent Marshall around the nation to deliver morale-boosting speeches and encourage Americans to buy Liberty Bonds in support of the war effort. In his speeches, he cast the war as a "moral crusade to preserve the dignity of the state for the rights of individuals".
Wilson became the first president to personally deliver a treaty to be ratified by the Senate, which he presented to Marshall as the presiding officer during a morning session.
Marshall's wife, Lois, was heavily involved in charitable activities in Washington and spent considerable time working at the Diet Kitchen Welfare Center providing free meals to impoverished children. In she became acquainted with a mother of newborn twins, one of whom was chronically ill. The child's parents were unable to get adequate treatment for their son's condition. Lois formed a close bond with the baby, who was named Clarence Ignatius Morrison, and offered to take him and help him find treatment.
The Marshalls never officially adopted Morrison because they believed that to go through the procedure while his parents were still living would appear unusual to the public. Wanting to keep the situation private, they instead made a special arrangement with his parents.
In correspondence they referred to him as Morrison Marshall, but in person they called him Izzy. His death devastated Marshall, who wrote in his memoir that Izzy "was and is and ever will be so sacred to me". President Wilson experienced a mild stroke in September Wilson's wife Edith strongly disliked Marshall because of what she called his "uncouthed" disposition, and also opposed his assumption of presidential powers and duties.
On October 5, Secretary of State Robert Lansing was the first official to propose that Marshall forcibly assume presidential powers and duties. Other cabinet secretaries backed Lansing's request, as did Congressional leaders, including members of both the Democratic and Republican parties who sent private communications to Marshall, who was cautious in accepting their offers of support.
The vice president informed the cabinet that the only cases in which he would assume Wilson's powers and duties were a joint resolution of Congress calling on him to do so, or an official communication from Wilson or his staff asserting his inability to perform his duties. Wilson was kept secluded by his wife and personal physician and only his close advisers were allowed to see him; none would divulge official information on his condition.
However, senators opposed to the League of Nations treaty blocked the joint resolution in hopes of preventing the treaty's ratification.
These senators believed that as acting president Marshall would make several key concessions that would allow the treaty to win ratification.
Wilson, in his present condition, was either unwilling or unable to make the concessions, and debate on the bill had resulted in a deadlock.
On December 4, Lansing announced in a Senate committee hearing that no one in the cabinet had spoken with or seen Wilson in over sixty days. The senators seeking to elevate Marshall requested that a committee be sent to check on Wilson's condition, hoping to gain evidence to support their cause.
Dubbed the "smelling committee" by several newspapers, the group discovered Wilson was in very poor health, but seemed to have recovered enough of his faculties to make decisions.
Their report ended the perceived need for the joint resolution. At a Sunday church service in mid-December, in what Marshall believed was an attempt by other officials to force him to assume the presidency, a courier brought a message informing him that Wilson had died. Marshall was shocked, and rose to announce the news to the congregation. The ministers held a prayer, the congregation began singing hymns, and many people wept. Marshall and his wife exited the building, and made a call to the White House to determine his next course of action, only to find that he had been the victim of a hoax, and that Wilson was still alive.
Marshall performed a few ceremonial functions for the remainder of Wilson's term, such as hosting foreign dignitaries. Edward, Prince of Wales , the future monarch of the United Kingdom, spent two days with Marshall and received a personal tour of Washington from him. The resulting lack of leadership allowed the administration's opponents to prevent ratification of the League of Nations treaty.
Wilson began to recover by the end of , but remained secluded for the remainder of his term, steadfast in his refusal or inability to accept changes to the treaty.
Marshall was prevented from meeting with him to ascertain his true condition until his final day in office. It remains unclear who was making the executive branch's decisions during Wilson's incapacity, but it was likely the first lady with the help of the presidential advisers. Marshall had his name entered as a candidate for the presidential nomination at the Democratic National Convention.
He made arrangements with Thomas Taggart to have a delegation sent from Indiana to support his bid, but was unable to garner support outside of the Hoosier delegation. Ultimately he endorsed the Democratic nominees, James M. Cox for president and Franklin D.
Roosevelt for vice president, but they were defeated by the Republican ticket of Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. Marshall considered returning to Columbia City after leaving office, but instead bought a home and opened a law practice in Indianapolis, where he believed there would be better business opportunities. The latter book was completed in May and subsequent historians have noted it as unusual, even for its time, for not disclosing any secrets or attacking any of Marshall's enemies.
The last he delivered was to high school students in the town of his birth. While on a trip to Washington D. His wife called for medical assistance, but he died before it arrived. A service and viewing was held in Washington two days later and was attended by many dignitaries.
Marshall's remains were returned to Indianapolis, where he lay in state for two days; thousands visited his bier. His funeral service was held June 9, and he was interred in Crown Hill Cemetery , next to the grave of his adopted son Morrison "Izzy" Marshall.
She died in and was interred next to her husband. Marshall was known for his quick wit and good sense of humor. On hearing of his nomination as vice president, he announced that he was not surprised, as "Indiana is the mother of Vice Presidents; home of more second-class men than any other state". One of the sons went to sea and drowned and the other was elected vice president; neither son was ever heard from again.
Marshall's humor caused him trouble during his time in Washington. He was known to greet citizens walking by his office on the White House tour by saying to them, "If you look on me as a wild animal, be kind enough to throw peanuts at me.
He enlisted as a private in the 8th Minnesota and was quickly appointed lieutenant colonel of the 7th Minnesota on August 28, He fought in many of the battles of the Dakota War being promoted to colonel of his regiment on November 6, Marshall and his regiment were transferred to Andrew Jackson Smith 's command in Missouri and took part in the pursuit of Sterling Price.
Smith's command was attached to George H. Thomas ' army outside Nashville. When Colonel Sylvester G. Hill was killed the first day of the battle of Nashville , Colonel Marshall took command of Hill's brigade and led it throughout the rest of the battle. He continued in brigade command when transferred to Mobile, Alabama to take part in the Battle of Fort Blakeley.
Colonel Marshall was brevetted brigadier general of volunteers, dated March 13, Marshall won the and gubernatorial elections. As governor, he repeatedly urged passage of a black suffrage amendment. After defeating it twice, the legislature finally adopted the amendment and inspired Marshall to declare that the "free young state of Minnesota" is "now altogether free. After leaving office, Marshall remained active in both the private and public sectors as an attorney, banker, and as a railroad and land commissioner.
Paul, but subsequent commercial ventures faltered, as did his health. He moved to California in and died there two years later. Marshall County, Minnesota and the city of Marshall, Minnesota were named after him. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. William Rainey Marshall. Marshall's death on April 4, were in error. See this article's discussion page.
Powell Clayton - Wikipedia
He was an officer in the Union Army during the U. Clayton retired to Eureka Springs, Arkansas and promoted the development of the resort town through his activity in the Eureka Springs Improvement Company and the Eureka Springs Railroad. Powell was the brother of U. Clayton and U. Attorney W. Clayton's ancestor William Clayton emigrated from Chichester, England , was a personal friend of William Penn , one of nine justices who sat at the Upland Court in , and a member of Penn's Council.
In , Clayton moved to Leavenworth, Kansas to work as a surveyor. He speculated in land in Kansas and entered politics in when he successfully ran for the office of city engineer in Leavenworth.
During the war he served primarily in Arkansas and Missouri and fought in several battles in those states. In August , Clayton received a commendation for his leadership when his unit saw action in the Battle of Wilson's Creek in Missouri.
He was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the 5th Kansas Cavalry in December and to colonel in March At the Battle of Helena in Arkansas on July 4, , Clayton commanded the cavalry brigade on the right flank of the Union forces and received a commendation for his actions.
During the battle, his troops piled cotton bales around the Jefferson County Courthouse and surrounding streets to make a barricade for the Union defenders. Clayton was idolized by his men and respected by his enemies.
John Edwards, a Confederate officer in Joseph O. Shelby 's command wrote: " Colonel Clayton was an officer of activity and enterprise, clear-headed, quick to conceive, and bold and rapid to execute.
His success in the field has caused him While still the commanding Colonel at Pine Bluffs, Clayton invested in cotton and acquired sufficient capital to purchase a plantation in Pine Bluff where he settled after the war. Clayton was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers on August 1, When he was mustered out of the service in August , he commanded the cavalry division of the Seventh Army Corps.
In , Clayton participated in the formation of the Arkansas Republican party. He attributed his participation in Arkansas politics to confrontations with ex-Rebels on his plantation that convinced him that Unionists required additional protection. In , Democrats took control of the state legislature and nominated two U. However, the Republican-controlled Congress refused to seat them.
In March , Congress passed the Reconstruction Acts of declaring the governments of Arkansas and nine other former Confederate states illegal and requiring those states to adopt new constitutions providing civil rights to freedmen. Congressional Reconstruction established military rule across the South and General Edward Ord was appointed military governor of the Fourth Military District which included Mississippi and Arkansas.
He disbanded the legislature and called for a constitutional convention. Most of the delegates to the constitutional convention were Republican since few Democrats could take the " ironclad oath " that they had not served in the Confederacy or given aid or comfort to the enemy.
Clayton was not a delegate to the constitutional convention but did participate in the Republican state nominating convention which was meeting at the same time. That convention selected Clayton as the Republican gubernatorial nominee and James M.
Johnson as the candidate for lieutenant governor. The ratification of the constitution, providing civil rights and the vote to freedmen, produced a furor among Democrats, who adhered to white supremacist beliefs.
That Spring the Ku Klux Klan arose in Arkansas, and was responsible for more than murders of former slaves and Republicans leading up to the election. On April 1, , the state board of election commissioners announced ratification of the constitution and Clayton's election as Governor of Arkansas.
Democratic President Andrew Johnson vetoed it, but the Republican-dominated Congress was able to override his veto. The state was readmitted to representation in Congress when Clayton was inaugurated as Governor on July 2, The new legislature unanimously accepted the Fourteenth Amendment and Congress declared Arkansas reconstructed.
As governor, Clayton faced fierce opposition from the state's conservative political leaders and violence against blacks and members of the Republican party led by the Ku Klux Klan.
During this time Arkansas Republican Congressman James Hinds was attacked and killed while on his way to a political event and Clayton survived an attempt on his life. Clayton responded aggressively to the emergence of the Klan in Arkansas by declaring martial law in fourteen counties for four months in late and early Clayton organized the state militia and placed General Daniel Phillips Upham in charge to help suppress violence throughout the state.
Clayton and the Republicans in the legislature accomplished much during his three-year terms as governor. State bonds were issued to fund the construction of several railroads throughout the state. Arkansas completed its first ever free public school system. During Clayton's Reconstruction governorship, the Arkansas Republican party splintered in the face of serious opposition from conservatives. This position garnered Clayton few friends at the state Republican party level and he faced repeated challenges to his leadership.
In , Joseph Brooks who had been a partner with Clayton in the formation of the Arkansas Republican party, broke with Clayton and formed a faction known as the "Brindletails". Brooks opposition to Clayton developed partly due to Clayton's increasingly moderate stance toward ex-Confederates but also due to Clayton's displacement of Brooks as leader of the Arkansas Republican party.
In , Lieutenant Governor James M. Johnson charged Clayton with corruption in the issuance of railroad bonds and misuse of power in his program to suppress violence. The Brindletails managed to impeach Clayton in but he withstood the challenge and the legislature never heard the case against the governor. In January , the Arkansas legislature elected Clayton to the United States Senate which initiated another controversy of Clayton's administration.
Clayton did not want to accept the Senate seat and have his political opponent and lieutenant governor James M. Johnson succeed him as governor. In March , the legislature again elected Clayton to the U. Senate which he accepted this time. In January , the U. Senate Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of the Late Insurrectionary States heard testimony raising questions about Clayton's behavior and integrity as governor.
Senator, a grand jury had indicted him on charges that as governor Clayton issued fraudulent election credentials for the U. House of Representatives election to John Edwards. In response to these allegations, Clayton contended that in eight precincts, there had been two separate sets of polls. One set was overseen by authorized judges and the other under the unauthorized control of opposing political factions.
The Arkansas Supreme Court ruled that the legal election had been held at the authorized polling places and that returns from the others were fraudulent. As governor, Clayton discarded the returns from the fraudulent polling places and certified the candidate who won from the genuine votes. House of Representatives in February The committee judged the issue to be beyond its jurisdiction and turned the matter over to the Senate. At Clayton's request, the Senate appointed a special three-member committee to investigate the charges.
In June , after interviewing thirty-eight witnesses and generating five thousand pages of transcript, the committee issued a partial report indicating that the testimony appeared to not sustain the charges against Clayton.
The committee noted that the charges came from Clayton's bitter political rivals and that the indictment against Clayton had been dropped due to lack of evidence. However, the committee members stated that they required additional time and would issue a final report in the next session of the Senate.
In February , the committee issued its final report declaring that the testimony failed to sustain the charges against Clayton and that there was no evidence that he had any fraudulent intent in certifying the election of Edwards as directed by the state supreme court.
The Senate voted 33 to 6 to accept the committee's findings. Nine senators, mostly Democrats, abstained from voting on the grounds that they had been given insufficient time to review all of the testimony. While in the Senate, Clayton appealed to his brother, William H. Grant to have Judge Isaac Parker reassigned from Utah to Fort Smith, Arkansas , a frontier area with a high rate of violence and crime.
Parker, the legendary "Hanging Judge," along with U. Attorney Clayton, are credited with bringing law and order to the region. In , Clayton lost his Senate seat since the legislature, now dominated by Democrats elected one of their own to the Senate. Clayton returned to Little Rock, Arkansas where he practiced law and supported economic development. In , Clayton established a home at the developing resort town of Eureka Springs in Carroll County in northwestern Arkansas. He and his wife lived in what is now the Crescent Cottage Inn.
ESIC sponsored the development of the Eureka Springs Railroad which was key to making the resort accessible to tourists. A poem on the fireplace in the lobby of the Crescent Hotel is attributed to Clayton .
In , Clayton became the president of the Eureka Springs Railway, which provided service to the resort community until , when it was merged into what became the Missouri and North Arkansas Railroad. Clayton remained active in the Republican Party. In , he served as a member of the Republican National Committee. He was appointed as the first ambassador to Mexico by President William McKinley when that post was elevated to an embassy post  and served until In , Clayton moved to Washington, D.
Their son, Powell Clayton, Jr. On September 9, Clayton lost his left hand while hunting outside Little Rock when his rifle discharged. These three men made their careers in Arkansas. William was appointed as the United States Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas and served as the chief prosecutor in the court of " hanging judge " Isaac Parker for 14 years.
John was assassinated in in Plumerville , Arkansas. He had disputed the election results of a Congressional race with Democrat Clifton Breckinridge and was shot through the window of the boarding-house where he was staying. While Clayton had resided in Washington, D. He continued to do this, as well as presevering his status in the Republican party, until his death on August 25, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Powell Clayton. Retrieved 3 September