Content in this special section was created or selected by the Everyday Health editorial team and is funded by an advertising sponsor. The sponsor does not edit or influence the content but may suggest the general topic area. We respect your privacy. Beverly Franklin, 46, is doing exactly that. For her, refusing to use a condom is a deal-breaker.
This protein shows up 3 weeks after you become infected. Talk about your concerns, feelings, and thoughts about your partner and the disease. STDs can have long-term health consequences. The test also checks for the HIV antibodies much like the antibody screening test. However, Yaz condoms can greatly reduce your chances of getting HIV. Vaginal sex also carries a zex for getting HIV, though it is less risky than receptive anal sex. Use a sharps container, or keep used needles away from other people.
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The Sexuality Yzx Challenge. Identifying your triggers can take some time and self-reflection. Their easy to read pamphlets tackle tough issues with straightforward language and engaging illustrations. But if that doesn't work, here are six other hacks to try. They come in blister Yax hiv and safer sex with 28 tablets per pack. It has 9, nucleotides in ad. General population characteristics. National Social Norms Resource Center more. HIV can be transmitted Pregnancy statisics an infected mother to her foetus through placenta. Pregnancy Counselling Centre non-profit organization for those who are facing and are affected by an unplanned pregnancy.
HIV or human immunodeficiency virus is a retrovirus virus that is transmitted through genital fluids and blood.
- After reading this essay you will learn about: 1.
- O'Gorman Hughes J The complete text of this often-referenced article is currently unavailable on the web.
- Yaz and Yasmin are birth control pills.
Content in this special section was created or selected by the Everyday Health editorial team and is funded by an advertising sponsor. The sponsor does not edit or influence the content but may suggest the general topic area. We respect your privacy.
Beverly Franklin, 46, is doing exactly that. For her, refusing to use a condom is a deal-breaker. She became infected with HIV when she and a partner, in a committed relationship, stopped using condoms.
They have since separated, and for the past six years, Franklin has been working with East Virginia Medical School as an outreach worker to help other people who have HIV and to educate those who are at risk.
If you or your partner has HIV, there are steps you can take to make sex safer. Find out what you can do to protect against transmission. Please enter a valid email address.
Key words: people of color Fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae - San Diego, California, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are among the antimicrobials recommended for treating uncomplicated gonorrhea. It can be done during window period and acute infection from CD4 lymphocytes of peripheral blood, bone marrow, serum or plasma. The video explores how to reach young people with information and skills to reduce risk taking behaviors Contraceptive Characteristics: The Perceptions and Priorities of Men and Women Grady W Despite the fact that choosing a contraceptive method is often a decision made by couples, little is known about how men and women differ in their perceptions of the characteristics of various method Encouraging communication about adolescent development, relationships, sex and health.
Yax hiv and safer sex. related stories
The virus acquires a lipoprotein envelope from the host cell membrane while budding out of the cell. The envelope has got projecting spikes peplomers on the surface and anchoring trans-membrane pedicles. Genetic makeup of the virus HIV is highly variable from strain to strain, hence vaccine preparation is difficult.
The amount of circulating antibodies and antigens varies during the course of infection. The core polypeptide displays some cross-reactivity. Tat transactivation gene. Rev regulatory of virus gene is required for expression of the gag, pol and env genes, but not for tat and rev.
HIV-2 is less virulent. Strains of HIV differ from each other due to mutations, deletions and insertions. The spikes gp of the viral envelope selectively binds to the 58 kd CD4 protein of T helper lymphocytes. Antibodies to CD4 protein block the viral binding site. Mere attachment of virus to CD4 will not suffice for virus infection, but a second human receptor component is of great necessity for viral entry, mediated by gp Two cleavage products of envelope glycoprotein gp i.
At first gp binds to CD4 protein of host cell, then gp 41 terminus is exposed, thus helping the host cell membrane to fuse with the viral membrane. Hence, the viral core directly enters the cytoplasm of host cell. The infected CD4 cells express a high level of gp protein on their surface which ultimately fuses to CD4 protein of uninfected neighbouring cells, with formation of multi-nucleated syncitial cells.
These fused cells die finally, thereby causing a depletion of large number of un-infected cells in the circulation. Evolution usually virus remains hidden latent in host cell for a short period. Window period is the interval period between HIV infection and appearance of antibodies and lasts for 2 to 3 weeks; sometimes it may last for more than six months. During this window period the sero-negative person may transmit the virus.
After about 2 weeks of infection, free p 24 Ag and RT reverse transcriptase Ag circulate in the blood anti-genaemia , which is difficult to identify—particularly in sexually contracted infection. But it is easier in infection acquired by blood transfusion as the blood contains free virus and large number of infected cells. With the onset of acute infection or sero-conversion about one month after infection , antibody titres becomes detectable and the level of antigens in the blood declines, disappears from the blood and remains absent throughout the asymptomatic phase.
With the formation of antibody, there is disappearance of the virus antigens in the blood. It indicates the immunological suppression of virus multiplication. Mostly serum p 24 antigen and viral replication remain suppressed during the first few years of infection. The antigen appears again in the blood when the immune system is damaged. Hence p 24 anti-genaemia corresponds to the loss of anti p 24 antibody in patients with chronic HIV infection.
Virus is easily cultured from a full-blown AIDS than from the asymptomatic person. There is exchange of body fluid during intercourse. HIV has been isolated from semen, vaginal secretion and breast milk. Genital ulcers may enhance transmission. HIV can also be transmitted by large quantity of saliva.
Infected blood transfusion, blood products, sharing needles as in drug abusers or accidental inoculation can transmit HIV. HIV can be transmitted from an infected mother to her foetus through placenta. At birth, an infant may be infected when infected placental blood or fluid cut animates abrasions of infant. Post-natal infection is acquired from breast milk.
Once in the host cell, the virus releases RNA which is transcribed by reverse transcriptase into DNA provirus which gets integrated into host cell chromosome causing latent infection. HIV grows slowly in CD 4 lymphocytes and monocytes. There will be depletion of T4 cells and macrophages.
It results into impaired responses of T4 cells leading to recurrent life- threatening opportunistic infections characteristic of AIDS. The acute illness is characterised by malaise, fever, sore throat, rash and lymphadenopathy. Peripheral blood shows lymphocytosis. Acute HIV illness is mistaken for infectious mononucleosis. Some cases, are accompanied by transient signs of meningitis, encephalitis or neuropathy. Infection of CNS occurs early due to initial viraemia. In this group, lymph node is enlarged more than 1 cm at two or more extra-genital sites for three months.
The immune system is overwhelmed by viruses. During this stage, the patients suffer from fever, night sweat, diarrhoea, muscle pain and weight loss. Anal and genital intercourse, intravenous drug abuse, haemophiliacs treated with blood or blood products, and blood transfusion are risk factors for transmission of AIDS in adults.
Infected mother can transmit HIV to babies. Children may be infected after transfusion of HIV infected blood or blood products. Symptoms develop within 2 years in paediatric AIDS. Repeated infections result in massive antigenic stimulation of B cells.
In-spite of adequate circulating Igs, an AIDS patient shows deficient immune response to new antigen. As the disease progresses, there is destruction of T4 helper cells; as a result of which there is a decline in cell mediated response to all antigens.
It can be done during window period and acute infection from CD4 lymphocytes of peripheral blood, bone marrow, serum or plasma. The serum level of p 24 Ag is an useful guide to monitor the virus suppression, when the patient is under Azidothymidine AZT therapy. There are two types of serological tests screening and confirmatory. The screening test is easy to perform and are highly sensitive for a broad spectrum of antibodies. Southern blot, in human of Edward Southern who invented the process of analysing fragments of DNA and Northern blot named factiously employed to analyse transferred RNA.
These two tests can detect antigen by known antibody. In Western blot test, HIV is broken down speared into protein fragments in a polyacrylamide gel. The separated proteins are blotted electrophoretically from the gel into a strip of nitro-cellulose sheet. These strips are incubated with test sera. The strips are washed and treated with enzyme conjugated anti-human gamma globulin and allowed to react. Then a suitable substrate is added that produces colour bands.
The position of colour bands on the strips indicates the fragment of antigen to which serum antibodies combined. In a typical case of HIV infection, usually bands with multiple proteins are formed. In a full blown AIDS, there is leucopenia with a lymphocyte count of less than per cu mm and thrown leucocytopenia. The count of CD4 lymphocytes rises with effective therapy. It is well-established that HIV is mainly a sexually transmitted disease, though it was originally observed in homosexuals.
It may be transmitted through blood, semen, vaginal fluid, via breast milk, from infected mother to her child through placenta. Because of the educational programme, homosexual contacts have fallen.
Through routine screening test, HIV infection through blood transfusion is virtually eliminated. An infected person may transmit the virus unknowingly during latent period and asymptomatic phase. By August , about cases of AIDS have been reported from India; incidence is higher in males than females 2: 1.
Subtype C spreads faster and—if not controlled—kills faster. Subtype O is also reported in India. Estoy Cambiando, Volumen 1: Mi Cuerpo Pick S Colorful illustrations and straightforward language create an engaging book on puberty for Spanish language readers. Changes for girls and boys are explained with an emphasis on uniqueness and the hea Estoy Cambiando, Volumen 2: Lo Que Pienso y Lo Que Siento Pick S In the same style as volume one, with colorful illustrations and straightforward language, the authors present the social and emotional changes of puberty and growing up for boys and girls.
Key wor Women between the ages of 18 and 22 years old were recruited for the study to answer the Women's Sexual and Reproductive Histo The publications website from ETR provides color graphics of pamphlets, posters and mat Expect the Best from a Girl. That's What You'll Get. Women's College Coalition Key words: girl's development, gender equity, mentor Explaining Demographic Trends in Teenage Fertility, Manlove J The teenage birthrate rose sharply in the late s and early s, and then declined in the s.
Attempts to explain these changes have failed to account for the changing environment in which ado Fact Sheet on Latino Youth: Sexual Behavior Brindis CD Key words: abortion, adolescents, births, condoms, Hispanic, people of color, pregnancy, sexuality, statistics, teen sexual activity Fact Sheet: What if I'm Pregnant?
Facts in Brief - Contraceptive Use National statistics US about contraceptive users, methods, and pregnancy are presented in brief statements supported by graphs and charts. Recent changes in contraceptive usage are clearly identifi Facts in Brief - Teen Sex and Pregnancy No author listed National statistics and facts about teens are presented in brief statements and graphs.
The areas covered are: sexual activity graph , contraceptive use, sexually transmitted disease, teen pregnancy This report is a synthesis of research on this topic since The report explore Families: A Celebration of Diversity, Commitment and Love Jenness A Key words: family, adoption, extended family, teen parents, gay, lesbian, foster children, single parent, handicapped parent, stepfamily Miller KS Communication between parents and adolescents about sex, particularly in minority families, has been understudied; more information is needed both on which sex-related topics are discussed and on how Crosby RA Key words: parent child communication, sexuality Family Relationships and Adolescent Pregnancy Risk: A Research Synthesis Miller BC Key words: parent child communication, teen sexual activity, sexual abuse, teen parents, risk factors, pregnancy prevention Family Strengths: Often Overlooked, but Real Moore KA Key words: adolescent, emotional health, family, parent child communication, protective factors, resiliency, risk factors, youth Family Village None listed A global community of disability-related resources Visit the "KidsHealth" section for information for kids and teens The minute color video has closed captioning.
Recommended for gra In this easy to read booklet, the author has compiled a wealth of statistics from about the impact of fathers and fatherlessness on children.
The b Fatherhood Development: A Curriculum for Young Fathers This curriculum contains five modules with a total of 25 lessons. It was developed for low-income young fathers ages 16 to The sessions are conducted as a blend of support group and educational cl Fathering Pregnancies: Marking Health-Risk Behaviors in Urban Adolescents Guagliardo M This study of urban, adolescent male clinic clients examines using pregnancy history as a marker for other health risk behaviors.
Almost one fourth of the males surveyed reported a pregnancy history Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics If you're looking for statistics to for proposals and reports, the Forum on Child and Family Statistics is a useful source of information. Female Facts Easy to read text with information about the menstrual cycle. Clear illustrations show internal and external reproductive organs.
A useful resource when teaching young people about the changes of pub Fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae - San Diego, California, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are among the antimicrobials recommended for treating uncomplicated gonorrhea.
Fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae have been ide Focus on Kids. It has been effective in giving urban youth the skills and knowledge they need to protect t Food Fright Sherman RM A minute video adapted from a popular stage review of the same title exploring the thoughts and feelings of millions of women who are trapped in a secret life of bulimia, anorexia, over-exercise an Weil A more.
From Diapers to Dating: A Parent's Guide to Raising Sexually Healthy Children - From Infancy to Middle School Haffner DW Key words: sexuality, sexuality education, infant, toddler, preschool, elementary school, adolescence, adolescent development, values, body image, anatomy, masturbation, puberty, pregnancy, birth, dat Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Timing of First Sexual Intercourse Upchurch D Whether the effect of gender on the risk of first intercourse is influenced by adolescents' ethnicity has received limited attention in research on age at first sex.
Such information could provide a m General population characteristics. Marital status by sex and age. Bureau of the Census more. Gente Joven Gente Joven is a program designed to help youth obtain information and medical services that they require to prevent unwanted pregnancies, STDs, and HIV and to live their lives based on values of resp The website features news, links, facts, and research about teen pregnancy prevention in California Getting a piece of the pie?
Declining teen birth rates during the s Cohen CG more. Getting Organized Kreinin T ed. This three-volume publication is a toolkit for people at state and local program levels involved in developing and implementing teen pregnancy prevention efforts. The material includes practical tips Girl Power! A national public education campaign sponsored by the Department of Health and Human Services to help encourage and empower 9 to year-old girls to make the most of their lives.
The campaign provide Girl Stuff A 20 minute video on the changes of puberty in females. Key words: adolescence, adolescent development, girls Foundation for Women Key words: girl's development, gender Go Ask Alice!
Columbia University Health Education Program A classic web site that set the standard in answering anonymous questions. Data from the Gonococcal Isola Grafeeties take program messages out the door with your students and into the community.
These popular, flexible stickers work well as incentives and can be custom designe Includes summary profile of the health status of the Hispanic child an The book is reader-friendly and addresses a gamut of topics related to adolescent development: physiological changes, rep Key words: physical development, cognitive development, emotional development, sexual development, families, parent child communication Key words: cognitive development, emotional development, family, parent child communication, physical development, puberty, sexual development Guidebook: Evaluating Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs, 2nd Ed Card JJ A comprehensive guide to the implementation of evaluation methods into all aspects of teen pregnancy programming Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education.
Hablemos Acerca del S-e-x-o: un libro para toda la familia acerca de la pubertad Foster L Key words: adolescence, adolescent development, puberty, sexuality, parent child communication Hair in Funny Places: A Book about Puberty Cole B Key words: adolescence, adolescent growth and development, sexuality, body changes, menstruation, ejaculation, parent child communication Handbook of sexuality-related measures Davis CM Includes more than instruments, accompanied by the necessary information for their use in research, as well as educational and clinical settings Kubey R more.
Their work covers a wide range of health issues with an emphasis on repr Health Behavior and Related Factors in Adolescents with a History of Abortion and Never-pregnant Adolescents Felton G Although prevention of unintended births among adolescents is health promoting, abortion, as one of those methods, has not been examined from a health promotion perspective.
The authors describe and c Key words: African American, chronic illness, healthcare delivery, health policy, insurance, people of color, violence Health Issues in the Latino Community. Health locus of control and self-esteem as related to adolescent health behavior and intentions Dielman TE A study of health behavior and attitudes among 5th and 6th graders.
Questions related to past and current behavior and future intentions with respect to cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana u Green L more. Helping Teens Stop Violence Screening for STDs in these facilities, however, is difficult because of the large numbe It summarizes the state-of-knowledge on Hispanic sexual behavior and implications for HIV prevention.
It also provi Lesson plans are in English and Spanish. The lesson intent is to break the myth of reducing risk by selecting an uninfected partner, rather than by using condoms for pr How old are U. Landry DJ more. How Relationships of U. How to Help Your Teenager Postpone Sexual Involvement Howard M A reference material for parents and other adults designed to provide tools they need to help their children postpone sexual involvement.
It addresses social and peer pressures that lead to earl They offer workshops, videos, individual and group activities, icebreakers, games, books, training aids, and more.
The online catalo Impact of a High School Condom Availability Program on Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors Schuster M While making condoms available in high schools has provoked much debate, evidence on the actual effects of such programs on students' attitudes and behavior is sparse. Implementation of Condom Social Marketing in Louisiana, to Cohen D The implementation and impact of the first statewide condom social marketing intervention are described in this article.
The program made condoms available at no cost and conducted annual surveys abou Improving Body Image Lightstone J more. The author examines efforts at national, regional, and local levels, most originating outside o Males and females This 35 minute vid Incarcerated Adolescents in Washington State. Health Services and Utilization. Anderson B The purpose of this study is to describe the health services available to, and their utilization by, adolescents who are incarcerated in the state of Washington.
The article documents findings from si Incident Chlamydia trachomatis Infections Among Inner-city Adolescent Females Burstein G Chlamydia trachomatis plays an important preventable role in the cause of pelvic inflammatory disease in US women and related infertility due to tubal damage.
Adolescents are at highest risk for chla Inner-city Adolescents' Awareness of Emergency Contraception Cohall A A survey was conducted with urban adolescent clients of an inner-city clinic in New York City to ascertain their level of knowledge about emergency contraception EC.
All respondents identif Interaction of pubertal status, mood and self-esteem in adolescent girls Huerta R Study which examined the relationship between pubertal status, mood and self-esteem in adolescent girls Intermedia Films Intermedia Films both produces and distributes educational videos and videos for human resources training.
International Center for Research on Women Worldwide research and projects, many address adolescent sexuality International Planned Parenthood Federation Information for young people, adults, parents and professionals on sexual health and reproductive rights.
Key words: abortion, advocacy, birth control, contraception, EC, education, emergency c International Youth Foundation more. Issue Brief on Latino Youth: Reproductive Health Driscoll AK, Key words: adolescent reproductive health, contraceptive use, culture, education, family structure, Hispanic, immigration, parent child communication, people of color, pregnancy prevention, statistics It's So Amazing!
Using exercises which require students to use listeni It's Your Choice: Birth Control for Teens A minute video on all currently available contraceptive methods, including abstinence, as well as upcoming methods as of Summer Peer educators present the information in a clear, thorough, Kaiser Family Foundation Developed for young people, this website provides factual information and support for making informed decisions around sexual and reproductive health.
The authors present essential information in a st The site includes information, games, a chat room for teens and a guide for parents. Newsline has links to top For 30 years, the Joint Center has been working to expand the political participation of African Americans and to improve their economic status whi Journeyworks Publishing This website offers an online catalog of publications from Journeyworks.
Their easy to read pamphlets tackle tough issues with straightforward language and engaging illustrations. Many items are avail Jovenes Sabios Wise Guys Jovenes Sabios or Wise Guys is an week, male responsibility program which provides education and activities in Spanish designed to prevent adolescent pregnancy among high risk year old male The first off Juvenile competence to stand trial: A comparison of adolescents' and adults' capabilities as trial defendants Grisso T more.
Kaiser Family Foundation is an independent philanthropy focusing on the major health care issues facing the nation. The foundation is an independent voice and source of facts and analysis Krames Communications Over booklets, brochures, instruction sheets, videos, and posters are produced by Krames.
These publications are geared to patient education and employee wellness programs Anatomy and functions of the reproductive systems for males and females are presented. Menstruation, conception, birth, contra Learned Optimism Seligman M more. None listed Basic information on common sexually transmitted diseases. Lifejackets offers items like mugs and ribbons, button Like It Is.
Tierney J Key words: adolescent, African American, boys, girls, males, dropout prevention, effective programs, drugs and alcohol, mentoring Making the Connection: Sexuality and Reproductive Health A guide to help program planners, providers and policy makers worldwide understand the connection between sexuality and reproductive health Male Facts Castleman M Easy to read text with information about male reproductive anatomy and physiology.
Color illustrations show internal and external reproductive organs. A useful resource when teaching young people abo Key words: abortion, counseling, education, parent child communication, policy and legal issues, rape, reproductive rights, sexual abuse, teen Marketing social change: Changing behavior to promote health, social development, and the environment Andreasen A more.
Measuring violence-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among youths; a compendium of assessment tools Dahlberg LL This publication is no longer in print but is available in pdf version Teens as Targets?
Adolescent's Media Tastes and Preferences. Media Literacy Online Project This site provides many articles on media literacy and an easy-to-navigate list of resources Medical Care Cost Savings from Adolescent Contraceptive Use Trussell J An analysis of the economic benefits of adolescent contraceptive use utilizes information from a national private payer database and from the California Medicaid program to compare private- and public A one-day training on this topic is also available Menstruation Facts Key words: adolescence, adolescent development, puberty, girls Also available in Spanish Mentor Relationships and the Career Development of Pregnant and Parenting African-American Teenagers Klaw EL Key words: adolescents, alternative school students, at-risk youth, mentoring, people of color, teen parents Key words: at-risk youth, best practices, evaluation, programs Key words: girls, education, training, coaching, recruitment Methods for Social Research in Disease Dawson S digitized version of a manual on conducting focus groups Minority Health Network MHNet A web-based information source for individuals interested in the health of minority groups.
Mirror Image Potter A A six-part series on men and body image. Missouri Volunteer Resource Mothers A community-based mentoring program for pregnant and parenting teens. The website includes training resources for initiating a program and evaluation results of the MVRM program Issues can be downloaded.
The MMWR weekly contains data on specific diseases as reported by state and territorial health depart More New Games! More than one-third of teens never or inconsistently used contraceptives during their first sexual relationship Child Trends more. Most of Us Project A research project in the Department of Health and Human Development at Montana State University-Bozeman dedicated to improving communities by enabling people to lead healthier lives that strives to p To this end, they mobilize parents and individuals to be educators and advocates.
Education materials and Mothers' Influence on Teen Sex: Connections That Promote Postponing Sexual Intercourse Blum RWM Key words: adolescent, teen sexual activity, dating, parent child communication, mothers, sons, daughters, boys, girls, middle school youth, high school youth, students, birth control, contraceptives, Mothers' Influence on the Timing of First Sex Among and year-olds McNeely C Key words: adolescent, teen sexual activity, parent child communication, sons, daughters, boys, girls Written m National Alliance for Hispanic Health The National Alliance for Hispanic Health is the oldest and largest network of health and human service providers serving more than 10 million Hispanic consumers throughout the U.
Since , they h National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy - teenpregnancy. Their multifaceted efforts target teens, parents, professionals and policy makers with u National Center for Cultural Competence The mission of NCCC is to increase the capacity of health and mental health programs to design, implement and evaluate culturally and linguistically competent service delivery systems Key words Identified in the one-page National Clearinghouse on Marital and Date Rape Key words: relationship violence, abuse, policy, legal National Council for Adoption Key words: advocacy, education, policy and legal issues, research, resources National Eating Disorders Association - Puppet Prevention Program Body image prevention education for children in kindergarten through fifth grade.
Key words: adolescence, adolescent development, puberty, body image, girls National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health The mission of NLIRH is to ensure the fundamental human right to reproductive health for Latinas, their families and their communities through education, advocacy and coalition building.
NLIRH comm Key words: people of color National MultiCultural Institute NMCI's mission is to work with individuals, organizations, and communities in creating a society that is strengthened and empowered by its diversity.
Through its initiatives, NMCI leads efforts to inc National Network for Youth - NN4Youth The National Network for Youth has been dedicated to ensuring that young people can be safe and lead healthy and productive lives.
Key words: homeless, runaway, street youth, at-risk, youth de National Organization of Concerned Black Men The National Organization and its chapters offer teen pregnancy and violence prevention, rites of passage, Black history spelling bees, college tours and other programs to children in schools and comm Key words: sexual abuse, child sexual abuse prevention National Peer Helpers Association This association sponsors conferences, publishes the Peer Facilitator Quarterly describing trainings and peer projects , and represents schools, social service agencies , and youth organizations in t National Resource Center for Safe Schools Key words: conflict resolution, mentoring, violence prevention, bullying, harassment National Social Norms Resource Center more.
Results of th Learn about their publications and programs at their web Visit the web address below for the complete news release and a link to the report.
Key words: oral contraceptives The charts and line drawings are outstanding for their clarity on Nine Tips to Help Faith Leaders No Easy Answers Kirby, D No Easy Answers is a research review authored by one of the leading researchers working in the field of teen pregnancy prevention.
The research was commissioned by the National Campaign to Prevent Tee The skills are primarily non-verbal In the first section the authors have analyzed data from the National Survey of Fami Creative artwork and photos frame articles addressing substance use prevention through decision making, self-esteem and communication. True stories from teen authors primarily ages reinforce p Nothing To Lose Wolfe K A minute video with the words and experiences of 15 fat women, speaking, acting and singing about being fat.
Key words: body image, media Now What Do I Do? Negative Body Issues Key words: body image, parent child communication Office of Minority Health The mission of the Office of Minority Health is to improve the health of racial and ethnic populations through the development of effective health policies and programs that help to eliminate disparit See the web address below for publication information and related books.
Our Kids - Sexuality and Developmental Disabilities Key words: sexual abuse prevention, masturbation, condom, sexual assault It is a series of sexuality education curricula for five age groups: grades K-1, grades , grades , grades , and adults This fact sheet outlines the APHA's op Twenty-four females diagnosed with either cervicitis or Patterns of Condom Use Among Adolescents: The Impact of Mother-Adolescent Communication Miller K The timing of mother-adolescent discussions about condoms and the use of condoms at first and subsequent intercourse were examined in this study.
The sample included sexually active adolescents be Patterns of Consultation Among Adolescent Minors Obtaining an Abortion Resnick M Key words: pregnancy, pregnant teens, parent child communication, mandated parental notification, decision making, teen parents A brief description of the program is included in the guide listed below pdf file. Peer Resources - The Mentors Corporation None listed Key words: mentor, mentorship, coaching, peers, peer assistance, tutor, youth development, community, school, teacher, youth Peer to Peer: Youth Preventing HIV Infection Together This publication summarizes steps for developing and implementing peer education programs, including recruitment, community organizing, involving parents, training, educational techniques and evaluati People Against Rape People Against Rape PAR is a private, nonprofit organization providing services for survivors of rape, incest, childhood sexual assault through advocacy, peer style support groups and Child Victim Services.
PAR serves th Perceiving the community norms of alcohol use among students: Some research implications for campus alcohol education programming Perkins HW This study surveyed alcohol use, and student perceptions of alcohol use, in a college student community.
It found that most students viewed themselves as moderate drinkers and overestimated the drinki One particular form of violent victimization, child sexual abuse, is a risk factor for suicide attempt Find local chapter information, read their mission statement, or search for publications and merchandise. This web site has information for teens; familie Physical and sexual abuse as predictors of substance use and suicide among pregnant teenagers Bayatpour M This study collected data from pregnant teenagers enrolled in a prenatal clinic and found that those with a history of physical or sexual abuse were at high risk for self-destructive behaviors Planned Parenthood - Your Uncensored Source Planned Parenthood is a national non-profit agency with affiliates throughout the US that offers health services, education and training, and advocacy supporting reproductive rights.
Their web site of Key words: prevention, education, resources, rape, minor, legal, reporting Population Council The Population Council is an international, nonprofit institution that conducts research on three fronts: biomedical, social science, and public health.
This research-and the information it produces-h Addresses emotional, medical, and legal issues. Predictors of sixth graders engaging in sexual intercourse Robinson KL This study explored factors related to the sexual behavior of sixth graders with an emphasis on the level of sexual behavior and its intentions, and the health-related risk behaviors.
Of the risk fact Pregnancies Averted Among U. Teenagers by the Use of Contraceptives Kahn J The personal and social costs associated with teenage pregnancy in the United States concern many policymakers and researchers, yet the role of contraception in preventing these pregnancies has not be Pregnancies, childbearing, and mental health problems in adolescents Stiffman AR more.
Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion Key words: decision making, emotions, teen pregnancy, teen parents, teen sexual activity Pregnancy Counselling Centre non-profit organization for those who are facing and are affected by an unplanned pregnancy. Services include pregnancy testing and counseling Pregnancy Rates Among U. Women And Their Partners in Darroch J When rates of pregnancy, birth and abortion are calculated only for the women involved, men's role in reproduction is ignored, resulting in limited understanding of their influence on these outcomes.
Preventing Repeat Adolescent Pregnancies with Early Adoption of the Contraceptive Implant Stevens-Simon C Even in intensive, adolescent-oriented programs, in which access to highly effective contraceptives is guaranteed, repeat adolescent pregnancies commonly occur.
Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations. Whaley AL more. The disease is characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions in the acute phase pr Profiles of self-esteem in early adolescence: Identification and investigation of adaptive correlates DuBois DL more. Consists of nine volumes and more than 1, pages RHO provides up-to-date summaries of research findin Promising Practices Network The Promising Practices Network presents research from programs and practices effective in strengthening children, families, and communities.
Each promising practice and program has a detailed descrip Protecting Adolescents from Harm: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health Resnick MD Key words: risk factors, protective factors, middle school youth, high school youth, students, emotional health, substance use, violence, sexuality, teen sexual activity, parent child communication Provision of Hormonal Contraceptives Without a Mandatory Pelvic Examination: The First Stop Demonstration Project Harper C First Stop, an month demonstration project that operated in , was designed to offer low-income adult women in California hormonal contraceptives without requiring a pelvic examination.
Young women who become infected need information and Pubertal maturation and adolescent self-esteem Brack CJ more. Pubertal status, interaction with significant others, and self-esteem of adolescent girls Lackovic-Grgin K This study examined the relationship between pubertal status, the quality of interactions with significant others, and the self-esteem of adolescent girls.
Girls who begun menstruating six months befo Puberty Facts Key words: adolescence, adolescent growth and development, anatomy, boys, girls Also available in Spanish La pubertad Puberty Flip Chart Key words: adolescence, adolescent growth and development Puberty: Incredible Facts Strange-but-true facts to trigger discussion around puberty topics.
Key words: adolescence, adolescent growth and development, anatomy, boys, girls Puberty: The Wonder Years Sellers W Key words: adolescence, adolescent growth and development, anatomy, physiology, limit setting, refusal skills, postponing sexual intercourse, friendship, media literacy, elementary school youth, middl Puberty: What's Normal What's Not Key words: adolescence, adolescent growth and development, anatomy, hormones, boys, girls Key words: at-risk youth, after school programs, drugs and alcohol, faith based initiatives, incarcerated youth, me Que Pasa Por Alla Abajo?
Also av Reaching the Hip-Hop Generation: It's not just what to say, but how to say it. This video is designed to educate viewers about the process of developing messages to reach this population. Teens on the street speak out on messages to th Real Boys' Voices Pollack W Key words: adolescent development, bullying, communication, emotional development, male involvement, sexuality, suicide, violence Reducing Developmental and Cultural Barriers to Reproductive Health Services for Diverse Youth: Project Summary Sugland, BW The purpose of this study was to assess youth perceptions of reproductive health care delivery systems, assess delivery sites clinics , and to make recommendations to reduce barriers to services, in Barth RP The RTR curriculum includes 16 well-defined lessons for 9th and 10th graders which clearly emphasize teaching refusal statements, delay statements and alternative actions students can use to abstain o Key words: resiliency, youth development Relational theory and cultural enhancement interventions for African American adolescent girls Belgrave F.
This study tested the effectiveness of two culturally appropriate substance abuse prevention intervention programs for African American girls. It was concluded that prevention programs should include It is important to know how cultural norms and gender roles, which v Religious Institute on Sexual Morality, Justice and Healing The full text of the Religious Declaration on Sexual Morality, Justice and Healing is available on this site, along with descriptions and ordering information for sexuality education curricula for fai Renfrew Center - Treatment of Eating Disorders and Women's Issues Fact sheets and information on eating disorders addressing body image, tips for parents and educators, and males with eating disorders.
Limited items in Spanish Reported sexual behaviors and self-esteem among young adolescents Orr DP This study looked at the relationship between reported sexual experience and self-esteem in middle-school youth. Girls who reported having had intercourse had lower self-esteem scores than those w Reproductive health counseling for young men: What does it do?
Danielson R Study of a reproductive health intervention combining a highly explicit half-hour slide-tape program with a personal health consultation to male patients aged Reproductive Issues for Persons with Physical Disabilities Haseltine FP A broad range of topics are presented in this book including: emotions, sexual relations, fertility, sexual dysfunction, contraceptives, pregnancy, genetics, parenting, fatherhood and more Resilience Research Resiliency Defined 2.
How Schools Foster Resiliency in Students 3. Resilient Students Need Resilient Educators 4. Characteristics of Resiliency-Building Schools 5. The objective is to help organizations working in developing countries to plan Key word: STD Right on Target: Choosing Communities, Organizations, Youth and Families for Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs Intended to help those who are developing and implementing teen pregnancy prevention initiatives by assisting them in selecting the communities, organizations, and clients that will maximize the progr Risk and Resilience in Infants and Young Children.
Risk and Resilience: Building Protective Factors. Lindenberg C more. Room to Grow: Improving Services for Pregnant and Parenting Teenagers in School Settings Summarizes key findings in the field of service delivery to pregnant and parenting adolescents.
Reprinted from Education and Urban Society Sacred Choices Dionne Jr. EJ, Chen MH eds more. Peer Leader Training Guide.
Coyle K For grades 9 - Key word: condoms Safer Sex The New Morality Lerman E more. Safety First: A Reality-Based Approach to Teens, Drugs, and Drug Education Rosenbaum M This pamphlet may be helpful if you are meeting resistance on the part of other educators, administrators or teachers to using a harm reduction approach. Key words: Substance use Safety of Emergency Contraception Glasier A This article examines the safety of four emergency contraception EC regimens: the combined estrogen-progestin regimen, levonorgestrel, mifepristone RU , and the intrauterine device.
While studie Reynolds Charitable Trust, this project aims to increase the availability of bilingual, culturally appropriate STD prevention and education resources for Latino teens in School-based Programs to Reduce Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Review of Effectiveness Kirby D This review was undertaken in recognition of the mounting public health and social problems associated with adolescent sexual behavior and the importance of basing school-affiliated programs designed School-Based Sexuality Education: The Issues and Challenges Donovan P An overview of political debate about school-based sexuality education is provided, leading to a portrait of current state policy requirements.
The author explores the impact of abstinence-only curri Herman-Giddens ME Key words: adolescent growth and development, puberty, elementary school youth, middle school youth, high school youth, females, menstruation, people of color Self-esteem as a predictor of initiation of coitus in early adolescents Spencer JM This study showed that boys with higher self-esteem ratings at the beginning of the study were more likely to initiate intercourse than those with lower self-esteem ratings.
Conversely, girls with hig Self-Image: The Fantasy, The Reality none listed A minute video by teens, for teens about the many complex issues surrounding self-image and body image.
Key words: media, self-esteem, steroids The publication summarizes the task force recommendations in infusing service-learning into Californ Services for Men at Publicly Funded Family Planning Agencies, Finer LB Men's reproductive health needs are receiving increased attention, but most family planning clinic clients are female, and clinics have reported barriers to serving men.
Sex and America's Teenagers Gives the facts about the trends in teenage sexual activity and contraceptive use; the incidence and consequences of sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy; and the effects of program and policy A Summary of Findings. Hoff T more. Kowaleski-Jones L The likelihood that adolescents will engage in sexual activity, use contraceptives or become parents is influenced by a range of attitudes and behaviors.
These factors may differ for males and females Sex, Etc. An award winning teen-produced website and newsletter about reproductive health and sexuality Sexual abuse as a factor in adolescent pregnancy and child maltreatment Boyer D Among the findings of this study are that abused women are three times more likely than nonabused women to have children that are maltreated and are more likely to have repeat pregnancies The last update was Nov.
The following topics [as they relate to sexual assault] are addressed: Acquaintance Sexual Behavior Among U. High School Students, Warren C High rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases STDs , including HIV infection, among adolescents are major public health concerns that have created interest in trends in teenage Sexual Coercion Content in 21 Sexuality Education Curricula Beyer CE This article reviews curricula for coverage on the topics of date rape, stranger rape, exploitation, pressure, incest, sexual harassment, and unwanted touch.
It also looks at themes such as myths, gui Sexual Health Resource Network - annotated bibliography The Sexual Health Resource Centre provides services and resources to increase the understanding of sexuality, support healthy sexual development, decrease the incidence of sexual abuse and provide dir Sexual Interactions: Realities and Myths 2.
Contemporary Explanations of Sexuality 3. Research on Sexuality 4. Sexual Anatomy Saewyc E Although a limited amount of research has retrospectively explored the childhood and adolescent heterosexual experiences of lesbians, little is known about the prevalence of heterosexual behavior and The right to say no is a theme repeated throughout. Sexualidad y Juventud "Guia para novatos en amor y sexo" No author listed Discusses the differences between sex and love in relationships. Young people are given concepts to consider regarding exploration of their sexuality.
Masturbation, pornography, prostitution, premarit Sexuality and Adolescents with Autism Koller R key words: disability, sexuality education Sexuality and Down Syndrome Schwab W more. Sexuality and People with Intellectual Disability Second Edition Fegan L Key words: sexuality education, children, adults, autism, sexual abuse prevention Public Schools, Landry DJ While policymakers, educators and parents recognize the need for family life and sexuality education during children's formative years and before adolescence, there is little nationally representative Sexuality Education in Fifth and Sixth Grades in US Public Schools Landry DJ While policymakers, educators and parents recognize the need for family life and sexuality education during children's formative years and before adolescence, there is little nationally representative Sexuality Resource List Kelton S A list of books, videos, websites and organizations to assist families in learning about sexuality Sexuality, Contraception, and the Media Committee on Public Education Recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics on addressing the role of the media in teen sexual behavior.
Sexuality-related social norms among middle school students in an urban public school system Bacon W paper presented at the annual meeting of the american Public Health Association, Philadelphia, PA Four-color illustrations feature people with diverse body types and skin tones.
A presentation outl University of Missouri-Columbia student health, peer education program. Small-area analysis: targeting high-risk areas for adolescent pregnancy prevention programs Gould J Traditional methods of identifying areas in need of adolescent pregnancy prevention programs may miss small localities with high levels of adolescent childbearing. Social influences on the sexual behavior of youth at risk for HIV exposure Romer D This study investigated the role of knowledge, attitudes, perceived parental monitoring, and peer behavior in the onset and progression of sexual behavior in children at risk for exposure to HIV Social Learning Theory Bandura A more.
Social norms and the prevention of alcohol misuse in collegiate contexts Perkins HW This study of alcohol use among college students found student peer norms to be the strongest influence on students' personal drinking behavior. The study also found that permissiveness and problem be Sociodemographic Correlates of Virginity in Seventh-Grade Black and Latino Students Raine TR Throughout six schools in the District of Columbia, seventh grade students completed anonymous, self-administered questionnaires including items on demographics, age at first intercourse and other
Today, more tools than ever are available to prevent HIV. You can use strategies such as abstinence not having sex , limiting your number of sexual partners, never sharing needles, and using condoms the right way every time you have sex. If you have HIV, there are many actions you can take to prevent transmitting it to others. If you take HIV medicine as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load or stay virally suppressed , you can stay healthy and have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative sex partner.
Abstinence means not having oral, vaginal, or anal sex. The longer you wait to start having oral, vaginal, or anal sex, the fewer sexual partners you are likely to have in your lifetime.
In general, there is little to no risk of getting or transmitting HIV from oral sex. However, the risk is still very low, and much lower than with anal or vaginal sex. Oral sex involves putting the mouth on the penis fellatio , vagina cunnilingus , or anus anilingus.
Factors that may increase the risk of transmitting HIV through oral sex are oral ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases STDs , which may or may not be visible. While there is little to no risk of getting HIV from oral sex, using a barrier for example, a condom, dental dam, or cut-open nonlubricated condom can further reduce your risk of getting or transmitting HIV and protect you and your partner from some other STDs, including gonorrhea of the throat and hepatitis.
Because your mouth may come into contact with feces or other body fluids during oral sex, it is important that you talk to a health care provider about your chances of getting hepatitis A and B. Your provider can help you decide if vaccination is right for you.
Use condoms the right way every time you have sex, take medicines to prevent or treat HIV if appropriate, choose less risky sexual behaviors, get tested for other sexually transmitted diseases STDs , and limit your number of sex partners. The more of these actions you take, the safer you can be. Receptive anal sex is the riskiest type of sex for getting HIV. Vaginal sex also carries a risk for getting HIV, though it is less risky than receptive anal sex.
Factors that may increase the risk of transmitting HIV through oral sex are oral ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other STDs, which may or may not be visible. If you use them the right way every time you have sex, condoms are highly effective in preventing HIV infection.
Condoms can also help prevent other sexually transmitted diseases STDs you can get through body fluids, like gonorrhea and chlamydia. However, they provide less protection against STDs spread through skin-to-skin contact, like human papillomavirus or HPV genital warts , genital herpes, and syphilis. For some individuals at high risk of getting or transmitting HIV, adding other prevention methods, like taking medicines to prevent and treat HIV, can further reduce their risk see How can I prevent getting HIV from anal or vaginal sex?
Water-based and silicon-based lubricants are safe to use with all condoms. Oil-based lubricants and products containing oil, such as hand lotion, Vaseline, or Crisco, should not be used with latex condoms because they can weaken the condom and cause it to break. It is safe to use any kind of lubricant with nitrile female condoms. But lubricants containing nonoxynol-9 should not be used because nonoxynol-9 irritates the lining of the vagina and anus and increases the risk of getting HIV.
Circumcised men should take other actions, like using condoms the right way every time they have sex or taking medicine to prevent or treat HIV, to further reduce their risk of getting HIV or to protect their partners. You can combine additional strategies with PrEP to reduce your risk even further. This includes anyone who is in an ongoing sexual relationship with an HIV-positive partner.
It also includes anyone who:. It may be an option to help protect you and your baby. Taking medicine after being potentially exposed to HIV, called post-exposure prophylaxis or PEP , can keep you from becoming infected. But PEP must be started within 72 hours after a possible exposure. The sooner you start PEP, the better; every hour counts. Microbicides are gels, films, or suppositories that can kill or neutralize viruses and bacteria.
Researchers are studying both vaginal and rectal microbicides to see if they can prevent sexual transmission of HIV, but none are currently available for use. There are many actions you can take to lower your risk of transmitting HIV to a partner. The more actions you take, the safer you can be.
Also, encourage your partners who are HIV-negative to get tested for HIV so they are sure about their status and can take action to keep themselves healthy.
Or they can use a home testing kit. Getting and keeping an undetectable viral load is the best thing you can do to stay healthy. If you keep an undetectable viral load, you have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative sex partner.
Most people can get the virus under control within six months. If your viral load is not undetectable—or does not stay undetectable—you can still protect your partner by using other prevention methods. The following actions are highly effective for preventing HIV:. Keep in mind that your greatest chance of transmitting HIV is when you are the insertive partner top during anal sex. For receptive vaginal sex and injection drug use , they need to take PrEP 20 days in a row and keep taking it to get the most protection.
Stopping injection and other drug use can lower your chances of getting or transmitting HIV a lot. If you keep injecting drugs, use only sterile needles and works. Never share needles or works. The best way to reduce your risk of HIV is to stop using drugs. You may need help to stop or cut down using drugs, but many resources are available. Talk with a counselor, doctor, or other health care provider about substance abuse treatment.
If you keep injecting drugs, here are some things you can do to lower your risk for getting HIV and other infections:. Women in their third trimester should be tested again if they engage in behaviors that put them at risk for HIV. After delivery, you can prevent transmitting HIV to your baby by avoiding breastfeeding, since breast milk contains HIV. A woman living with HIV should avoid breastfeeding even if she has an undetectable viral load. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link.
Section Navigation. Minus Related Pages. On This Page. How can I prevent getting HIV from oral sex? How can I prevent getting HIV from anal or vaginal sex?
Specifically, you can: Use condoms the right way every time you have sex see How well do condoms prevent HIV? Learn the right way to use a male condom. Reduce your number of sexual partners. This can lower your chances of having a sex partner who will transmit HIV to you. The more partners you have, the more likely you are to have a partner with HIV whose viral load is not suppressed or to have a sex partner with a sexually transmitted disease.
Both of these factors can increase the risk of HIV transmission. People with HIV who get and keep an undetectable viral load can stay healthy for many years and have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.
Choose less risky sexual behaviors. HIV is mainly spread by having anal or vaginal sex without a condom or without taking medicines to prevent or treat HIV. How well do condoms prevent HIV? There are two main types of condoms: male and female. Male Condoms A male condom is a thin layer of latex, polyurethane, polyisoprene, or natural membrane worn over the penis during sex.
Latex condoms provide the best protection against HIV. Polyurethane plastic or polyisoprene synthetic rubber condoms are good options for people with latex allergies, but plastic ones break more often than latex ones.
Use water- or silicone-based lubricants to lower the chances that a condom will break or slip during sex. It irritates the lining of the vagina and anus and increases the risk of getting HIV.
Female Condoms A female condom is a thin pouch made of a synthetic latex product called nitrile. Some people use female condoms for anal sex. Can using a lubricant help reduce my HIV risk? Yes, because lubricants can help prevent condoms from breaking or slipping. Can male circumcision prevent HIV? Can I take medicines to prevent getting HIV? PrEP involves daily medication and regular visits to a health care provider.
Can I take medicines to prevent HIV after exposure? Can I get vaccinated to prevent HIV? There is currently no vaccine that will prevent HIV infection or treat those who have it. Can I use microbicides to prevent HIV? The most important thing you can do is to take medicine to treat HIV infection, called antiretroviral therapy ART , as prescribed.
If your viral load stays undetectable, you have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex. Visit your health care provider regularly and always take your medicines as prescribed. Use condoms the right way every time you have sex. Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual activity for HIV transmission. Oral sex is much less risky than anal or vaginal sex. If you inject drugs, never share your needles or works with anyone.
Your partners should talk to a health care provider right away within 72 hours after a possible exposure. Get tested and treated for other STDs and encourage your partners to do the same.