Although perceivers often agree about the primary emotion that is conveyed by a particular expression, observers may concurrently perceive several additional emotions from a given facial expression. In the present research, we compared the perception of two types of nonintended emotions in Chinese and Dutch observers viewing facial expressions: emotions which were morphologically similar to the intended emotion and emotions which were morphologically dissimilar to the intended emotion. Findings were consistent across two studies and showed that a morphologically similar emotions were endorsed to a greater extent than dissimilar emotions and b Chinese observers endorsed nonintended emotions more than did Dutch observers. Furthermore, the difference between Chinese and Dutch observers was more pronounced for the endorsement of morphologically similar emotions than of dissimilar emotions. We also obtained consistent evidence that Dutch observers endorsed nonintended emotions that were congruent with the preceding expressions to a greater degree.
Angry, disgusted, or afraid? Blais, C. Markus, H. Sato W. Study 1 Method Participants The study chija individuals, 11 participants were excluded because they merely clicked through the trials without performing the task. Motivation and Emotion22 The participants were asked to sit approximately 55 cm away from a inch CRT display monitor with a sample rate of 85 Hz, and to place their fingers on a keyboard using the standard keyboard fingering.
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More or less, all emotion recognition engines comprise the same steps. What is interesting about this is that there are aFcial expressions that are the same across cultures. This is demonstrated in infants before the age of two; they display distress, disgust, interest, anger, contempt, surprise, and fear. To find out what people feel, he believes we look at context and construct an Fackal. Emotion Perception Across Cultures How culture influences the way we interpret facial expressions of emotion. Get Listed Today. I like reading through an article that will Faciql men Facial expressions of emotion in china women think. Though Chinese respondents can control mild Facial expressions of emotion in china well, they are less reserved in strong negative emotions, such as anger. Research has shown that chimpanzees are able to communicate many of the same facial expressions as humans through the complex movements of the facial muscles. Silver Spring, MD: T. The Blog for Culture Vultures Satiate your inner Culture Vulture with regular news and posts about cultural awareness, doing Oshkosh ne and nightlife abroad, working in a multicultural environment, HR diversity and global mobility.
Two experiments in this study were designed to explore a model of Chinese fixation with four types of native facial expressions—happy, peaceful, sad, and angry.
- The alleged universality of facial expressions has been debated since Darwin.
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- Unfortunately, what he complained are true.
Two experiments in this study were designed to explore a model of Chinese fixation with four types of native facial expressions—happy, peaceful, sad, and angry. In both experiments, participants performed an emotion recognition task while their behaviors and eye movements were recorded. Experiment 1 24 participants, 12 men demonstrated that both eye fixations and durations were lower for the upper part of the face than for the lower part of the face for all four types of facial expression.
Experiment 2 20 participants, 6 men repeated this finding and excluded the disturbance of fixation point. These results indicate that Chinese participants demonstrated a superiority effect for the lower part of face while interpreting facial expressions, possibly due to the influence of eastern etiquette culture. For example, evidence from subjective well-being research showed that Eastern societies are more likely to hold dialectical emotional styles compared to Western societies.
In other words, people in Eastern societies are more likely to view positive and negative emotions as compatible, whereas those in Western societies are more likely to view them as in conflict with each other. These differences are perhaps due to differences in Eastern and Western philosophies Schimmack et al. Similarly, attention studies have found that Eastern pay more attention to backgrounds during visual tasks, which enables the understanding of relationships between objects and changes, while Westerners pay more attention to the target, which enables understanding of the features of an object Liu et al.
McCarthy et al. In addition, when searching for the answer to a question, Westerners often look toward the sky, while Easterners look toward the ground. Eye movement patterns when recognizing a face has been shown to be subject to cultural differences.
For example, Blais et al. On the Contrary, East Asian participants focused more on the central region of the face. Caldara et al. Those evidence suggests that there may be cultural differences in eye fixation patterns when gazing at a face.
Indeed, in Western culture, direct eye contact with others while communicating is usually encouraged Argyle and Cook, Thus, due to cultural influences, the eyes may be more important than the nose and mouth for facial expression recognition in Western culture. Many studies that used Western participants and Western faces as stimuli support this view.
For example, Vassallo et al. Additionally, evidence from the eye movements of Western individuals with social interaction problems, such as autism or social phobia, indicates that these individuals do not gaze directly at the eyes when asked to identify the facial expressions of others Horley et al. However, this phenomenon does not mean these individuals lack social skills—it could be a self-defense mechanism for avoiding anxious experiences, possibly due to negative critical statements given by others in the past, which is automatically activated when these individuals make eye contact with others Schneier et al.
This evidence indirectly confirms the importance of information in the eyes for recognizing facial expressions in Western cultures. Thus, the eyes are critical for recognizing facial expressions in Western cultures. In contrast, in Eastern, affected by the etiquette culture one aspect of Confucianism , direct eye contact is considered rude and should be avoided while communicating Argyle and Cook, This raises the question of whether individuals from Eastern cultures develop a different pattern from those from Western cultures when identifying facial expressions due to influences from their culture.
This could explain why some people view the lower part of the face nose and mouth more than the eyes. Jack et al. In addition, Tan et al. Thus, this inconsistency in previous studies requires further investigation using eye-tracking methodology. We devised two experiments to test this question.
Experiment 1 investigated whether Chinese participants developed a pattern of avoiding eye contact when identifying facial expressions displayed by Eastern faces. Experiment 2 which base on the outcome of Experiment 1, investigated whether this pattern due to the guidance of the first fixation point.
Twenty four healthy Chinese undergraduates of Han origin 12 men participated in this experiment. All had normal or corrected-to-normal vision and none were aware of the purpose of the study. This study for both Experiments 1 and 2 was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of IRB the institutional review board at Guangxi University for Nationalities with written informed consent from all subjects.
All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Four types of facial expressions happy, peaceful, sad, and angry were selected from a set of grayscale photographs created by the Chinese Affective Picture System CAPS Wang and Luo, Forty pictures were used for the formal experiment; each emotion was represented by 10 pictures.
In addition, we chose 20 other facial expression pictures, four for use in the classic learning phase and 16 for the practice phase. Before the experiment, each facial expression was aligned in terms of the position of the eyes, nose, and mouth, and matched in illumination and contrast.
The experiment was conducted in an isolated and quiet room. The participants were asked to sit approximately 55 cm away from a inch CRT display monitor with a sample rate of 85 Hz, and to place their fingers on a keyboard using the standard keyboard fingering. All experiment codes were run on E-prime 1. The experimental session was based on the research of Hampson et al. After the participants viewed the introduction and indicated their understanding of the task, they proceeded to the classic sample-learning step.
Participants were asked to press the spacebar when they recognized each facial expression. The aim of this step was to allow the participant to be acquainted with the classic model of these four types of facial expressions. The next step was practice Figure 1. A trial started with a fixation point appearing in the middle of the screen for ms, followed by one of the four types of emotion faces the recognition face , in random order, displayed at the center of the screen.
Participants were asked to identify the emotion and press the spacebar as quickly as possible. After this, four smaller emotion faces, previously shown in the classic sample-learning phase, were displayed.
At the same time, four cues written in Chinese, which referred to the four emotions, were displayed beneath the corresponding pictures, so that participants did not need to remember which finger corresponded to which emotion.
The participants received feedback after each response. The trial ended with a ms blank screen. After practice, each participant was given a point calibration procedure before proceeding to the formal experiment. This procedure was the same as that for the practice except that there was no feedback. The way to define AOI in this research was to draw a boundary halfway between the brows and philtrum, separating the face into eye upper half of the face and non-eye lower half of the face AOIs.
TABLE 1. Mean SD of accuracy for the four emotion faces in Experiments 1 and 2. Using the described AOIs, the statistical analysis of the fixation numbers and durations in different AOIs was conducted, only the right trails were analyzed. The detail data for fixation in Experiment 1 was presented in the Table 2. We used repeated measures ANOVA to test if there was a significant difference in the number of fixations, with type of emotion expressed and AOI as within-subject factors.
TABLE 2. Mean SD of fixation for the four emotion faces in Experiments 1 and 2. The detail data for duration in Experiment 1 was presented in the Table 3.
We used repeated measures ANOVA to test if there was a significant difference in fixation duration, with emotion type and AOI as the within-subject factors.
TABLE 3. Mean SD of duration for the four emotion faces in Experiments 1 and 2. The most important result in Experiment 1 is that the number of fixations and durations for Chinese participants were less for the upper part of the face eyes AOI compared to the lower part of the face non- eye AOI to all four types of facial expressions.
This opposite pattern compared to those of studies using Western samples Vassallo et al. However, there may be another explanation. The position of the fixation point we used to help participant to focus their attention in the beginning of a trail was on middle of the screen. The faces were also presented on the middle of the screen, but the areas for the lower part of a face non-eye AOI were normally bigger than the upper ones eyes AOI.
This may put the position of the fixation point into the lower part of a face and thus guide participants to pay their attention on it. For exclude this possibility, we then designed Experiment 2. Twenty healthy Chinese undergraduates of Han origin six men participated in this experiment.
Almost all procedure details in Experiment 2 were the same as Experiment 1 apart from one aspect: a trial in Experiment 2 started with a fixation point appearing no longer in the middle of the screen but instead randomly in one of eight positions around the boundary of the screen for ms see Figure 2.
The location of the eight positions and their relative position on the displayed face for Experiment 2.
The detail data for AC in Experiment 2 was presented in the Table 1. A LSD comparison found that the ACs of both happy and peaceful faces were higher than those of the sad and angry faces happy vs. Using the described AOIs, the statistical analysis of the fixation numbers and durations in different AOIs was conducted.
Only the right trails were analyzed. The detail data for fixation in Experiment 2 was presented in the Table 2. LSD comparisons found that the mean number of fixations for the happy face was lower than that of the other emotion faces happy vs.
The detail data for duration in Experiment 2 was recorded in the Table 3. LSD comparisons showed that fixation duration was shorter for happy faces compared to sad or angry faces happy vs. The fixation duration on the upper face was shorter than that of the lower face. In this study, we asked if healthy individuals from Eastern cultures developed a pattern of avoiding eye contact when identifying facial expressions displayed by Eastern faces. To answer this question, we used eye-movement technology and designed two experiments to explore the fixation patterns of Chinese participants when they attempted to identify such expressions.
Experiment 1 demonstrated an opposite pattern compared to those of studies using Western samples Vassallo et al. Experiment 2 repeated this finding and excluded the possibility of fixation point guiding. This difference in fixation patterns between Eastern and Western participants could be explained by their respective customs during social interactions.
By contrast, in Eastern, due to the etiquette culture, direct eye contact when communicating is considered very rude and should be avoided Argyle and Cook, Therefore, people from Eastern cultures view the eyes less often than the mouth and nose. However, our results partly contradict that of Jack et al.
It is possible that the difference in results is due to different AOI sizes. Our AOI for the lower part of the face was much bigger than that for the upper part of a face, which may lead to more fixations on the lower part. However, this was probably not the case, because Jack et al.
Continue Reading. How to Detect Microexpressions. Facial expressions represent internal representations, which demonstrate emotional signals influenced by diverse cultures Jack et al. Namespaces Article Talk. The Health Benefits of Happiness Exploring the link between positive affect and health.
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Newborns everywhere look disgusted in response to bitter tastes, show distress on their faces in response to painful stimuli, and interest in response to novel sounds and other sensory changes. It is unlikely that an infant less than a month could have learned these expression. It is, therefore, safe to say that they are innate. Ekman also reports that blind children show the same facial expressions for particular emotions as sighted children.
Cultural readings are built upon this base. For example, a study of Chinese participants showed that Chinese-Americans were quicker to accurately read the facial expressions of other Americans than they were of Chinese residing in China. Similar findings were observed with Tibetans residing in China and Africans living in the U. In both instances people more quickly and more accurately described the feelings behind the facial expressions of those in their host countries than did those living in their former countries.
While it is true that cultures modify the rules around emotional display and therefore modify facial expressions, it is beyond dispute that smiles are understood as revealing happiness , frowns sadness and pulled down mouths disgust. Underlying obvious differences between cultures and individuals there are basic emotions common to all.
Furthermore, these basic emotions are displayed in the same ways and we understand what others are feeling simply by looking at their faces. It is helpful that facial expressions are universal. If a person was to go to another country they could see if they made a person there mad or not. I never thought about it being innate, but it makes sense that it is. Everybody can make a disgusted face with something bitter. What is interesting about this is that there are facial expressions that are the same across cultures.
This does indicate that beneath cultural differences, there are psychological fundamentals that all humans have. Cultural differences arise as responses to situations that are unique to place and time. But what people strive for, what's under it all, is the same. You stated that the universality of expressions makes the ability to read them innate but then talk about the study of individuals that were better able to read faces of their host countries than of the countries from which they came from.
To me, this provides a strong association with culture. I like reading through an article that will make men and women think. Also, thanks for permitting me to comment! You are right about cultural differences. My point is that it isn't all culture, that there is also a component that cuts across all cultures. Nearly everything about us is a mix of biology, culture and experience.
This makes us both different from everyone else but also makes us part of a common humanity. It is interesting that we are all born with 3 innate facial expressions. No matter the background we come from, we can all share this universal physical understanding of one another by displaying one of these expressions.
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Back Today. Indications : Eyebrows squeezed together to form a crease, eyelids are tight and straight, slightly lowered head, eyes look upwards through a lowered brow, tightening of facial muscles, tight lips, flaring nostrils, and an intense gaze. Indications : Half-open eyelids, raised eyebrows, frowning lips, relaxed muscles, vacant gaze, immobile face, and head propped up with hand.
Indications : Fixed eyes, reduced blinking, unconscious movement of tongue, slightly raised eyebrows, and head either erect or pushed forward. Indications : Nose and forehead scrunched up, one eyebrow raised higher than the other, and pursed lips. Indications : Neutral eyes with one side of the lip turned up and pulled back almost like a half-smile.
Indications : Raised upper eyelid and lower lip, wrinkled nose, raised cheeks, flared nostrils, and closed mouth. Indications : Open-mouthed smile, wide eyes, and raised eyebrows. Indications : Eyebrows are raised and drawn together, wrinkled forehead, raised upper eyelid, tensed lower eyelid, whites of the eyes are visible, gaping mouth, and tensed lips.
Indications : Fixed and intense eyes, biting lips, tilted head, slight smile, and one eyebrow raised higher than the other. Indications : Inward slanting eyebrows that are squeezed together, raised chin, lips pressed together, frowning, and mouth twisted to one side with a crease on the cheek. Indications : Tensed eyebrows, squinted eyes, and intense gaze. Indications : Lips pulled back in a frown, lowering of chin, tense lips, eyebrows tense and drawn together, wrinkled forehead, and head pulled back.
Indications : Tensed eyebrows, squinted eyes, intense gaze, exposed teeth, and lips pulled back. Indications : Widened eyes, gaping mouth, raised eyebrows, lowered chin, and head held back. Indications : Wide eyes, open mouth, intense gaze, and eyebrows are raised and drawn together. Indications : Inner corners of the eyebrows are drawn in and upwards, frowning of lips, jaw protrusion, pouting of lower lip, and eyes cast down.
Indications : Smiling, teeth may or may not be exposed, raised cheeks, crow's feet or wrinkles near corners of the eyes, and crescent shape of eyes. Indications : Half-open eyelids, slightly raised eyebrows, and relaxed muscles. Reading Expressions on One's Face. Face reading is an art. If you are good at reading facial expressions, even a slight change that lasts for a fraction of a second won't go unnoticed.
There are different types of expressions that include almost all facial features. When trying to read a facial expression, it is important that you understand the types of expressions first. Only then can you differentiate between slightly similar expressions like surprise and shock. They say, the eyes are the windows to the soul. Eyes can tell you a lot about what a person is thinking, feeling, or trying to express.
The rate of blinking will also tell you a lot about their state of mind. When a person is shocked, he may forget to blink for a few moments. A girl trying to seduce a boy may blink her eyes quite a few times in a seductive way. If the person is smiling, it may indicate that he is thinking or feeling happy, content, or satisfied.
A slight twitch of the upper lip may indicate aggressiveness, anger, or disgust. You can easily notice when someone is frowning upon something.
If you catch a person lying, you may notice a slight twitch in the corner of the mouth. However, you can notice the person is annoyed by looking at the pupils, slightly frowning brows, and the slight grinding of teeth.
A person who is worried may have his brows pulled together and may have a thoughtful look. Along with the facial expressions, you also need to keep in mind the overall body language of the person. Observe and learn, as this is the key for reading expressions. The following facial expressions will introduce you to the various human emotions you come across in your daily life. By observing a person, you can uncover what is going on in their mind.
Unfortunately, what he complained are true. Chinese traditional culture considers that people who want to be noble men should show neither joy nor anger. Diverse cultures form various understandings and facial expressions. In theory, facial expression is a fundamental element in human social interaction. There is a significant difference between facial expression of Chinese and EA resulted in cultures. This research paper will introduce the three most significant facial expression differences between Chinese and EA.
An interesting finding about the fundamental reason later will be addressed. Chinese respondents express emotions primarily through eyes while EA respondents reveal through eyebrows and mouths Jack, Caldara, Schyns, ; Compared to EA respondents, Chinese respondents rarely express interest-excitement and disgust-revulsion facial expressions Chan, Chinese respondents facial expression of anger-rage is more easily identifiable than the one expressed by EA respondents Chan, Chinese are more reserved and calm when excited or disappointed.
They use eyes to express emotions while the EA respondents use eyebrows and mouth. Facial expressions represent internal representations, which demonstrate emotional signals influenced by diverse cultures Jack et al.
According to Hofstede , the United States culture is strongly individualistic and Chinese culture is more collectivist. Moreover, as Confucius said, gentlemen should be able to control emotions and maintain gravity.
Being able to control emotions and reveal neither joy nor anger is one of the characters of noble men in Chinese concepts. Therefore, EA respondents are likely to express emotions with explicit and incidental facial expressions by moving eyebrows and mouth.
Chinese respondents influenced by the harmony and collectivism culture tend to express emotions with implicit and controlled facial expressions especially when expressing excitement and revulsion.
Though Chinese respondents can control mild emotions well, they are less reserved in strong negative emotions, such as anger. They even consider leisure is not important. On the contrary, people with high indulgence, the EA respondents, value leisure more highly, like to remember positive emotions, and believe themselves to be happy.
Think of it this way. Positive emotions and more sensitive in feeling happy can balance strong negative emotions. Besides, fewer restrictions allow people in less restraint culture express strong negative emotions freely.
Therefore, it is possible for people who live in less restraint culture and more sensitive about positive emotions to weaken strong negative emotions. Thus, as the researches reveal, Chinese respondents are more likely to become irate and influenced by negative emotions while EA respondents respond to anger in a milder way.
Carmas provided another interesting possible explanation—mom. EA mothers express more positive emotions than Chinese mothers Carmas, Chinese mothers are outstanding in aggravation and strictness Carmas, Mothers are the first and the most intimate teachers.
By influencing individuals, mothers create human history, and influence diversity in cultures. While we think of facial expressions as innate and natural, they are clearly culturally determined. Camras, L. Norris, K. Emotion , 6 1 , Chan, D. International Journal of Psychology, 20 6 , Jack, R.
Journal of Experimental Psychology , , 1, 19— National Culture. In the Hofstede Center. References Camras, L. Create a Site Search Sites Log in.