Childbirth , also known as labour and delivery , is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves a woman's uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. The most common way of childbirth is a vaginal delivery. Each year, complications from pregnancy and childbirth result in about , maternal deaths , seven million women have serious long term problems, and 50 million women have negative health outcomes following delivery. The most prominent sign of labour is strong repetitive uterine contractions. The distress levels reported by labouring women vary widely.
Maternal and prenatal health ppregnancy of particular concern among teens who are pregnant or parenting. Women receive a henna tattoo after birth, which is meant to prevent depression and sickness and promote bonding between mother and baby. If you take a break, the work piles up on the machine and the supervisor will come and shout. The ACOG also note that contraindications for induced labour are the same as for spontaneous vaginal delivery, including vasa previacomplete placenta praeviaumbilical cord Paying for pregnancy wiki or active genital herpes simplex infection. Often this is via a birth order  in which a court rules on the legal parentage of a child. This is possibly because surrogate mothers tend to be healthier and more fertile than Erect penis bending who use oocyte donation. Delaying the clamping of the umbilical cord for at least one minute or until it ceases to pulsate, which may take several minutes, improves outcomes fof long as there is the ability to treat jaundice if it occurs. Women with an unintended pregnancy are more likely to suffer depression during or after pregnancy. Anaesthetists or anesthesiologists are medical doctors who specialise in Paying for pregnancy wiki relief and the use of drugs to facilitate surgery and other painful procedures. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.
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The development of the mass tor cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten weeks of gestation. X-linked intellectual disability Lujan—Fryns syndrome. You may not experience food cravings right away. Retrieved 14 March Late term . Every year, aboutwomen die from giving birth, Sexy nevada about 7, mothers Paying for pregnancy wiki big problems from giving birth. Not Helpful 45 Helpful Dugdale, Susan Storck. New York: Pantheon Books, Neuroticstress -related and somatoform. How to Travel During Pregnancy. Naegele's rule is a standard way of calculating the due date for a pregnancy when assuming a gestational age of Darck stalker hentai at childbirth. How to Deal with Fibroids During Pregnancy. Spermatogenesis spermatogonium spermatocyte spermatid sperm Oogenesis oogonium oocyte ootid ovum Germ cell gonocyte gamete. Topical outline.
Teenage pregnancy , also known as adolescent pregnancy , is pregnancy in a female under the age of
- Pregnancy , also known as gestation , is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
- During the first two weeks of pregnancy, it can be difficult to determine whether you're pregnant.
- Teenage pregnancy , also known as adolescent pregnancy , is pregnancy in a female under the age of
- Pregnancy is when a female mammal has an unborn baby inside her.
Childbirth practices in India are shaped by the prevalence of Hinduism  and joint-family living, India's young average population, the lower national average age at marriage, and disparities in social status and literacy between men and women.
Inadequate maternal health care services in India are a result of poor organization, the huge rural-urban divide, and large interstate disparities coupled with stringent social-economic and cultural constraints.
The joint-family system is one of the basic features of Hindu social organization. Therefore, since Hinduism is the primary practiced religion in India, the joint-family system constitutes the majority of family structures in India.
The different kinsmen along with their spouses and children occupy the same dwelling, eat and worship together, and enjoy property in common. They cooperate in economic activity and, even if the members are differentiated occupationally, pool their earnings. In the s, it was reported that the median ages at marriage in India are The literacy rate in India has improved considerably over time. The rate has increased from For example, the literacy rate is higher in south India than in the north.
Also, a significant literacy gap exists between men and women. In , the male literacy rate reached Two thousand years ago, the position of women in the Hindu society was described as, "a woman should never be independent. Her father has authority over her in childhood, husband in her youth, and in old age her son has authority over her". The older societal male-dominated views regarding women still prevail in rural areas. Farming is the largest single occupation in India.
Approximately 28 percent of the Indian population lives below the poverty line with large inter-state variations. The central and eastern states of India account for 55 percent of the total poor population in India. This is most likely due to the fact that the use of maternal care services are very limited in these states. Alternatively, the western and southern states of India are economically and demographically more advanced than the northern and eastern states. Subsequently, these states account for only 17 percent of maternal deaths most likely due to a higher use of maternal care services in these areas.
Studies indicate that there is a negative association between the use of maternal care and maternal mortality ratio. In , 69 percent of India's population was rural. Many citizens live in villages and are involved in agriculture, which to a westerner seems similar to a small town. The rural areas often have inhabitants that live below the poverty line. Alternatively, a portion of the population lives in cities, which is noted as the wealthiest portion of the population.
However, the urban population includes many poor people from the countryside who often live in slums that contain a fifth of India's city dwellers. This portion of the population often works as laborers or in services. India has a huge urban middle class as well that are businessmen and professionals. In India deaths due to malnutrition , famines , and gastro-intestinal ailments are being decreased through improved agricultural production and distribution and the purification of water supplies.
In addition, the Government of India and the World Health Organization have launched national programs of medical care and preventive medicine which, on the basis of recent surveys, appear effective in lowering the incidence of smallpox, cholera, plague, malaria, filariasis, tuberculosis, and venereal diseases.
In regard to maternal healthy theories, age at marriage and fertility have been shown to be correlated. Also, poor states in India contributed to half of the maternal deaths in India. Therefore, there is a negative association between the use of maternal care and maternal mortality ratio.
The percent of women in India who had an unmet need for family planning is 21 percent. Fifty percent of women have at least 4 antenatal visits covered by their insurance. Only 8 percent of births resulted in a cesarean section. The average life expectancy in India is 66 years old. For women, it is specifically 68 years old and for men it is 64 years old. In , India's maternal mortality was per , live births. In , it was estimated that the maternal mortality ratio in India is 16 times higher than that of Russia, 10 times that of China and 4 times higher than Brazil.
Among developing countries, India contributes to the largest amount of births in the world a year, averaging 27 million births. However, unfortunately, India also accounts for 20 percent of global maternal deaths in year. Prenatal care access and utilization is largely affected by socioeconomic status , geographic location, and maternal education and autonomy. The use of prenatal care increased 12 percent from to , but this increase was due to greater utilization by non-poor women.
Poor women's utilization of prenatal care remained relatively stagnant, at only 6. Geographically, some Indian states have significantly lower rates of prenatal care. For example, according to studies in Uttar Pradesh , only 9 percent of women receive prenatal care, as opposed to 72 percent in Tamil Nadu.
Pregnancy is perceived positively in India, and most married women are extremely happy to learn of their pregnancy. Fertility is highly valued, and community members may begin to look negatively upon a woman if she is married for a year without any sign of pregnancy.
In preparing for birth, Indian women who live with their husbands generally seek counsel from their mothers-in-law. The advice of maternal figures is highly valued, and expectant mothers will follow the childbearing rituals passed down to them by their mother-in-law.
Sleep positions, eating habits, and level of activity are all influenced by the views of older women of the family. Aside from what is told to them, women receive very little knowledge regarding birth itself.
Often, women are very fearful for their birth, as they have only been told of the pain from others. The maternal figures of the family, especially the mothers-in-law, pass on customs regarding nutrition, hygiene, and daily activities during pregnancy. In some traditions, women may only drink hot tea and rice milk. The older women of the family determine each expectant mother's activity level and sleep habits, following family tradition.
Some women are told to increase their activity levels in order to prepare the body for the hard work of labor, while other rest throughout pregnancy to save energy. Sleeping may also be regulated, and some women never sleep on their back or turn over during pregnancy. Pain is expected during labor and is seen as part of the natural labor process. There is little knowledge about options such as epidurals in some communities.
In hospital births, private hospitals have a higher rate of pain relief. One study found the rate for private hospitals to be 9. During labour, the mother and child both need adequate monitoring. Inadequate monitoring during labour can increase the chances of the baby going into distress which can potentially lead to the death of child before birth.
It is also known as stillbirth. It is an unfortunate scenario that the largest number of stillbirths, more than , every year, happen only in India.
Female relatives and neighbors may support the mother by serving tea, heating water, and helping with wrapping the newborn after birth. Birth location often determines the amount and type of supportive behavior. Women who give birth in hospitals are generally supported by nurses, although the extent of this support varies.
Some express dissatisfaction with the lack of physical touch and comfort in the hospital. On average, However, this varies greatly by region. Traditional birth assistants TBAs attend 37 percent of home births in India.
These TBAs often lack knowledge and literacy regarding safe birthing practices, but could have a large influence in reducing maternal mortality if properly trained.
If educated properly on birthing positions , sanitary practices, weighing of the baby, maintaining adequate newborn body temperature, and handling postpartum hemorrhage , maternal and infant health in India could improve dramatically. The majority of TBAs, who attend 37 percent of home births in India, are married and have not been to school.
They may be trained or untrained, but the trained TBAs are generally younger with less work experience, and are paid for their services. The untrained TBAs are older, more experienced, and are generally unpaid.
The decision about where the birth is to take place is made by the woman's father or brother. Seventy-six percent of mothers reported using the sitting or squatting position for their last birth. The remaining 24 percent birthed in the supine position. After the placenta is delivered, the cord is cut and an herbal oil, face powder, or ash mixture is rubbed on the cut section. The placenta is buried near the home, or in some communities burned.
Nine days after birth, a ceremony is conducted at the placental burial site to announce the name of the baby.
The cesarean section rate in India was 8. However, this number is higher in some private hospitals. The use of interventions such as episiotomies , induction, and cesarean section varies between private and public hospitals. A study of women in Delhi found that the cesarean rate in private hospitals was The same study reported that the episiotomy rate in private hospitals was The rates of induction of labor were found to be The postpartum period begins after the delivery of the placenta.
This can range in length from 3 to 10 days, and no family or community members may interact with the mother and baby during this time. The baby is sprinkled with holy water in a ritual bath. Women receive a henna tattoo after birth, which is meant to prevent depression and sickness and promote bonding between mother and baby.
A ceremony is conducted on the ninth day postpartum to announce the name of the baby at the placental burial site. Many women are advised to avoid cold foods to avoid sickness, and have more hot foods during the postpartum period to relieve stomach pain. According to the World Health Organization,
The children of teen mothers are more likely to be born prematurely with a low birth weight, predisposing them to many other lifelong conditions. Many symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy like nausea and tender breasts appear in the first trimester. You will not lose seniority or benefits while taking PDL. A missed period is usually the first sign of pregnancy. Pregnancies, births, and abortions among adolescents and young women in the United States, National and state trends by age, race and ethnicity.
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Pregnancy , also known as gestation , is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. Pregnancy is divided into three trimesters. Prenatal care improves pregnancy outcomes. Associated terms for pregnancy are gravid and parous. Gravidus and gravid come from the Latin word meaning "heavy" and a pregnant female is sometimes referred to as a gravida. Similarly, the term parity is used for the number of times that a female carries a pregnancy to a viable stage.
A woman who has never been pregnant is referred to as a nulligravida. A woman who is or has been only pregnant for the first time is referred to as a primigravida ,  and a woman in subsequent pregnancies as a multigravida or as multiparous. In the case of a multiple birth the gravida number and parity value are increased by one only. Women who have never carried a pregnancy achieving more than 20 weeks of gestation age are referred to as nulliparous.
A pregnancy is considered term at 37 weeks of gestation. It is preterm if less than 37 weeks and postterm at or beyond 42 weeks of gestation. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have recommended further division with early term 37 weeks up to 39 weeks, full term 39 weeks up to 41 weeks, and late term 41 weeks up to 42 weeks.
Preterm and postterm are defined above, whereas premature and postmature have historical meaning and relate more to the infant's size and state of development rather than to the stage of pregnancy. The usual symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy do not significantly interfere with activities of daily living or pose a health-threat to the mother or baby.
However, pregnancy complications can cause other more severe symptoms, such as those associated with anemia. The chronology of pregnancy is, unless otherwise specified, generally given as gestational age , where the starting point is the beginning of the woman's last menstrual period LMP , or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.
Sometimes, timing may also use the fertilization age which is the age of the embryo. According to American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists , the main methods to calculate gestational age are: . Naegele's rule is a standard way of calculating the due date for a pregnancy when assuming a gestational age of days at childbirth. The rule estimates the expected date of delivery EDD by adding a year, subtracting three months, and adding seven days to the origin of gestational age.
Alternatively there are mobile apps , which essentially always give consistent estimations compared to each other and correct for leap year , while pregnancy wheels made of paper can differ from each other by 7 days and generally do not correct for leap year. Furthermore, actual childbirth has only a certain probability of occurring within the limits of the estimated due date. A study of singleton live births came to the result that childbirth has a standard deviation of 14 days when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasound , and 16 days when estimated directly by last menstrual period.
Through an interplay of hormones that includes follicle stimulating hormone that stimulates folliculogenesis and oogenesis creates a mature egg cell , the female gamete. Fertilization is the event where the egg cell fuses with the male gamete, spermatozoon. After the point of fertilization, the fused product of the female and male gamete is referred to as a zygote or fertilized egg.
The fusion of female and male gametes usually occurs following the act of sexual intercourse. Pregnancy rates for sexual intercourse are highest during the menstrual cycle time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days after ovulation. Fertilization conception is sometimes used as the initiation of pregnancy, with the derived age being termed fertilization age. Fertilization usually occurs about two weeks before the next expected menstrual period. A third point in time is also considered by some people to be the true beginning of a pregnancy: This is time of implantation, when the future fetus attaches to the lining of the uterus.
This is about a week to ten days after fertilization. The sperm and the egg cell, which has been released from one of the female's two ovaries , unite in one of the two fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg, known as a zygote , then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up to a week to complete. Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the female and male cells unite. Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst.
The blastocyst arrives at the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall, a process known as implantation. The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten weeks of gestation. During this time, cells begin to differentiate into the various body systems. The basic outlines of the organ, body, and nervous systems are established.
By the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings of features such as fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible. Also during this time, there is development of structures important to the support of the embryo, including the placenta and umbilical cord. The placenta connects the developing embryo to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. The umbilical cord is the connecting cord from the embryo or fetus to the placenta.
After about ten weeks of gestational age, the embryo becomes known as a fetus. At the beginning of the fetal stage, the risk of miscarriage decreases sharply. Sex organs begin to appear during the third month of gestation. The fetus continues to grow in both weight and length, although the majority of the physical growth occurs in the last weeks of pregnancy. Electrical brain activity is first detected between the fifth and sixth week of gestation.
It is considered primitive neural activity rather than the beginning of conscious thought. Synapses begin forming at 17 weeks, and begin to multiply quickly at week 28 until 3 to 4 months after birth. During pregnancy, a woman undergoes many physiological changes, which are entirely normal, including behavioral , cardiovascular , hematologic , metabolic , renal , and respiratory changes.
Increases in blood sugar , breathing , and cardiac output are all required. Levels of progesterone and estrogens rise continually throughout pregnancy, suppressing the hypothalamic axis and therefore also the menstrual cycle. A full-term pregnancy at an early age reduces the risk of breast , ovarian and endometrial cancer and the risk declines further with each additional full-term pregnancy. The fetus is genetically different from its mother, and can be viewed as an unusually successful allograft.
Pregnancy is typically broken into three groups of three months, each known as a trimester. Many symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy like nausea and tender breasts appear in the first trimester. Weeks 13 to 28 of the pregnancy are called the second trimester. Most women feel more energized in this period, and begin to put on weight as the symptoms of morning sickness subside and eventually fade away.
The uterus, the muscular organ that holds the developing fetus, can expand up to 20 times its normal size during pregnancy. Although the fetus begins to move during the first trimester, it is not until the second trimester that movement, known as quickening , can be felt. This typically happens in the fourth month, more specifically in the 20th to 21st week, or by the 19th week if the woman has been pregnant before. It is common for some women not to feel the fetus move until much later.
During the second trimester, most women begin to wear maternity clothes. Final weight gain takes place, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy. The woman's abdomen will transform in shape as it drops due to the fetus turning in a downward position ready for birth.
During the second trimester, the woman's abdomen would have been upright, whereas in the third trimester it will drop down low.
The fetus moves regularly, and is felt by the woman. Fetal movement can become strong and be disruptive to the woman. The woman's navel will sometimes become convex, "popping" out, due to the expanding abdomen. Head engagement , where the fetal head descends into cephalic presentation , relieves pressure on the upper abdomen with renewed ease in breathing. It also severely reduces bladder capacity, and increases pressure on the pelvic floor and the rectum.
It is also during the third trimester that maternal activity and sleep positions may affect fetal development due to restricted blood flow. For instance, the enlarged uterus may impede blood flow by compressing the vena cava when lying flat, which is relieved by lying on the left side. Childbirth, referred to as labor and delivery in the medical field, is the process whereby an infant is born. A woman is considered to be in labour when she begins experiencing regular uterine contractions, accompanied by changes of her cervix — primarily effacement and dilation.
While childbirth is widely experienced as painful, some women do report painless labours, while others find that concentrating on the birth helps to quicken labour and lessen the sensations. Most births are successful vaginal births, but sometimes complications arise and a woman may undergo a cesarean section. During the time immediately after birth, both the mother and the baby are hormonally cued to bond, the mother through the release of oxytocin , a hormone also released during breastfeeding.
Studies show that skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn immediately after birth is beneficial for both the mother and baby. A review done by the World Health Organization found that skin-to-skin contact between mothers and babies after birth reduces crying, improves mother—infant interaction, and helps mothers to breastfeed successfully.
They recommend that neonates be allowed to bond with the mother during their first two hours after birth, the period that they tend to be more alert than in the following hours of early life. In the ideal childbirth labor begins on its own when a woman is "at term". Sometimes if a woman's water breaks or she has contractions before 39 weeks, birth is unavoidable. Babies born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation have better outcomes than babies born either before or after this range.
Events after 42 weeks are considered postterm. The postnatal period, also referred to as the puerperium , begins immediately after delivery and extends for about six weeks. The beginning of pregnancy may be detected either based on symptoms by the woman herself, or by using pregnancy tests. However, an important condition with serious health implications that is quite common is the denial of pregnancy by the pregnant woman.
About one in denials will last until around the 20th week of pregnancy. The proportion of cases of denial, persisting until delivery is about 1 in This condition is known as a false pregnancy.
Most pregnant women experience a number of symptoms,  which can signify pregnancy. A number of early medical signs are associated with pregnancy.
Pregnancy detection can be accomplished using one or more various pregnancy tests ,  which detect hormones generated by the newly formed placenta , serving as biomarkers of pregnancy. Obstetric ultrasonography can detect fetal abnormalities , detect multiple pregnancies , and improve gestational dating at 24 weeks. Prenatal medical care is the medical and nursing care recommended for women during pregnancy, time intervals and exact goals of each visit differ by country.